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Lesson 10.4: The War of 1812 Today’s essential question: What were the major causes and outcomes of the War of 1812?

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 10.4: The War of 1812 Today’s essential question: What were the major causes and outcomes of the War of 1812?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 10.4: The War of 1812 Today’s essential question: What were the major causes and outcomes of the War of 1812?

2 What We Already Know From 1783 until 1812, the American military fought Indians in the Northwest and Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean, but no major wars against European nations.

3 What We Already Know Between 1803 and 1812, the British navy had captured about 6,000 American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships.

4 What We Already Know Young War Hawks like Henry Clay pushed Congress into declaring war on Britain.

5 On June 18, 1812 Congress declared war on Great Britain. At almost the same time, Parliament voted to end British interference with American shipping.At almost the same time, Parliament voted to end British interference with American shipping. The British announcement took several weeks to cross the Atlantic and arrived too late to prevent war.The British announcement took several weeks to cross the Atlantic and arrived too late to prevent war.

6 The War of 1812 Begins When the war began, the United States military was weak. The navy had only about 16 ships. The army had fewer than 7,000 men, who were poorly trained and equipped. U.S. officers had very little experience. The navy had only about 16 ships. The army had fewer than 7,000 men, who were poorly trained and equipped. U.S. officers had very little experience.

7 There were two phases of the War of From 1812 to 1814, Britain concentrated on its war against France.

8 After the British defeated France in 1814, they would turn their complete attention to the United States.

9 The First Phase of the War Although the U.S. Navy was small, its warships were the fastest afloat.

10 The Navy’s officers had gained valuable experience fighting the Barbary pirates.

11 Early stirring victories by ships such as the Constitution and the United States won boosted American confidence.

12 The most important U.S. naval victory took place on Lake Erie in September A British force on the lake attacked a force of American ships led by Oliver Hazard Perry.A British force on the lake attacked a force of American ships led by Oliver Hazard Perry. Although Perry’s ship was destroyed, he rowed to another ship, took charge, and went on to win the battle.Although Perry’s ship was destroyed, he rowed to another ship, took charge, and went on to win the battle. The British were forced to begin a retreat back to Canada.The British were forced to begin a retreat back to Canada.

13 On land, General William Henry Harrison chased the fleeing British all the way to Canada and defeated them at the Battle of the Thames in October, 1813.

14 Tecumseh died in the battle fighting for the British. The British and Indian threats to the Northwest were brought to an end.

15 By April 1814, Napoleon had been defeated and Britain focused on the war against America. The Second Phase of the War

16 In August of 1814, British forces invaded the United States and burned the Capitol building and the president’s mansion. The Second Phase of the War

17 In September, British ships shelled Fort McHenry near Baltimore in an all-night battle.

18 A Washington lawyer named Francis Scott Key watched the battle all night from a nearby ship.

19 At dawn, he could see that the flag was still flying. Key showed his pride by writing a poem that would become our national anthem.

20 Oh, say, can you see by the dawn's early light what so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, whose broad stripes and bright stars, thru the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? Oh, say, can you see by the dawn's early light what so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, whose broad stripes and bright stars, thru the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

21 The Battle of Lake Champlain In September, the British sent a force from Canada across Lake Champlain.In September, the British sent a force from Canada across Lake Champlain. Its goal was to push south and cut off New England.Its goal was to push south and cut off New England. But in September 1814, an American fleet defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain.But in September 1814, an American fleet defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain.

22 Diplomacy in Europe While the War of 1812 raged on, American and British diplomats signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the war in December 1814.

23 Unaware of the Treaty of Ghent, both sides continued to fight in the United States. In the South, the British targeted the strategic port of New Orleans.

24 A U.S. general, Andrew Jackson, put together an army to defend the port city.

25 When the British launched their attack in January 1815, their 7,500 troops were quickly defeated by Jackson’s soldiers.

26 Victory in New Orleans American casualties totaled 71, compared to Britain’s 2,000.

27 Victory in New Orleans American casualties totaled 71, compared to Britain’s 2,000. Victory in the Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a national hero. American casualties totaled 71, compared to Britain’s 2,000. Victory in the Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a national hero.

28 The War of 1812 had no clear winner, because little was changed. 1.Under the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, no territory exchanged hands. 2.None of the other issues (such as impressment) were resolved. 1.Under the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, no territory exchanged hands. 2.None of the other issues (such as impressment) were resolved.

29 The War of 1812 had several important outcomes.

30 1) American patriotism increased because of the heroic exploits of men such as Jackson and Perry.

31 2) The war broke the strength of Native Americans, who had sided with the British.

32 3) Because the war had interrupted trade, Americans were forced to make many of their own goods. This encouraged the growth of U.S. manufacturers.

33 17. What was the most significant outcome of the War of 1812? The United States proved it could defend itself against the mightiest military power of the time, and this caused a new sense of national pride and political unity to sweep the country.

34 Americans grew confident that their young nation’s independence would continue and the country would prosper.

35 First Phase of the War of 1812Second Phase of the War of 1812 DateEventDateEvent June 1812 Congress declares war on Britain August 1814 British burn U.S. capitol and president’s mansion September 1813 Perry defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Erie September 1814 British attack Ft. McHenry; British fleet defeated at Battle of Lake Champlain October 1813 Harrison defeats the British at Battle of the Thames; Tecumseh is killed December 1814 Treaty of Ghent signed; war ends April 1814 Napoleon is defeated; Britain shifts its focus to the United States January 1815 Andrew Jackson defeats British at Battle of New Orleans What Did Not ChangeWhat Did Change 1. No territory changed hands. 2. Trade disputes were left unresolved. 1. American patriotism increased. 2. The Native American threat was ended. 3. U.S. manufacturing increased. Major Events of the War of 1812


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