Presentation on theme: "Behavioral Observation Data for Individual Intervention Decision Making George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University."— Presentation transcript:
Behavioral Observation Data for Individual Intervention Decision Making George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov 18, 2010 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org
PURPOSE Provide overview of how observationally-based data can be used to guide intervention decisions for individual behavior management planning. Foundations Behavioral Data: Function- based Support Examples
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
All Some Few RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007
Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007 Science Soc Studies Reading Math Soc skills Basketball Spanish Label behavior…not people
RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007 Prob Sol. Coop play Adult rel. Anger man. Attend. Peer interac Ind. play Label behavior…not people
~80% of Students ~5% ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW & classroom discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement Active supervision SECONDARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION ~15%
Universal Screening of All Continuous progress monitoring of some
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior What is basic behavior unit of behavioral observation? “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed Represents basic working unit of FBA Directly guides development of BIP 5 Infrequent event/ condition affecting main. conseq. Events signal conseq. likely if behavior emitted Observ. action & response class Events following behavior & increase probability TE = Functional Relationship when describing a predictable & verifiable relationship among 4 elements
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq.
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in- school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. New studentStudent approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away What function? Escape peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. None Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend What function? Access peer & adult attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ?? Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo” What function? Access OR escape peer attention? How do you know? Assess?
TH1 for Hillary: "When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs." Test manipulation? – Put Al in Bill’s seat. Effect: – Hillary whispers in Al’s ear. Develop new testable hypothesis!
TH2: “When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.” Test manipulation? – Put Monica in Bill’s seat. Effect: – Hillary does not whisper. Use info to develop intervention
Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has 2 response classes that interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:
Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Teacher presents multiple step request. Verbal protest, non- compliance, foot stomping. Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension. Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Peers play game & have conflict. Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks. Peers stop playing with Kirsten. Get adult attention Escape peer social Implication! 2 intervention variations Implication! 2 intervention variations
Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors (1 response class). They developed following two testable hypotheses:
Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Peers try to engage Amy in con- versations. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Peers move away. Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Teachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words. Avoid peer attention Get adult social Implication! 2 intervention variations Implication! 2 intervention variations
Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.
STEP 4: Routine Analysis Schedule (Times) ActivityLikelihood of Problem BehaviorSpecific Problem Behavior 8:00Waiting to enter building Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 8:15Advisory & Planning1 2 3 4 5 6 Mostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesn’t escalate much further 9:15Language Arts1 2 3 4 5 6 Occasional name calling/teasing 10:15Recess1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 11:30Math1 2 3 4 5 6Occasional teasing 12:00Lunch1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 12:35Earth Science1 2 3 4 5 6Minor verbal harassment 1:15Art or Phy Ed1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 2:00Reading1 2 3 4 5 6Rarely a problem 2:50Waiting for bus1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help. Why is function important? Because consequences compete!! Function
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative
Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Neutralize, prevent, remove, minimize, or precorrect for influence of setting events ADD antecedent events that trigger desired behavior AND REMOVE antecedent events that trigger problem behavior ADD consequence events that maintain & support desired behavior AND REMOVE consequence events that maintain problem behavior TEACH alternative & desired behavior that is more effective, efficient, & relevant than problem behavior
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help.
Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Ask for break 2. Ask for help 3. Turn in assignment as is. Teach missing math skills Arrange for peer interaction before math class Provide positive adult contact Sit with preferred peer Introduce review type problem before difficult tasks Remind of alternative behaviors Do first problem together Immediately reinforce entering class. Provide reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes) Give break & help Sit with preferred peer when done
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Rides city bus Teacher corrects peers Profanity Verbal protests Teacher attention Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Delayed teacher attention. Ignore & problem solve later Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Discuss in private Why is function important? Because consequences compete!! Function
Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach J. how, when, & where to express verbal protest, & how to walk away from problem situations in transitions. On days city bus ridden, check in with counselor to review days schedule & walk with counselor to classroom Give >3 positive acknow- ledgements per min. to peers during transitions. Give private & quiet corrections to peers. Remind J. of acceptable & desired replacement behaviors When J. engages in problem behavior immediately disengage from him, & engage peers. When J. engages in replacement behaviors provide adult attention (discussion)
Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation * Response class * Routine analysis * Hypothesis statement * Alternative behaviors * Competing behavior analysis * Contextual fit * Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes * Evidence-based interventions * Implementation support * Data plan * Continuous improvement * Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle