The Origins of Rome Italy is a boot-shaped peninsula in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. The Apennine mountain range in Italy was easy to cross so, unlike Greece, people in Italy were not as separated. Italy also had farmland and was able to sustain more people than Greece. The Tiber River gave the Romans a source of water and a way to the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. Rome built it’s cities on top of hills for protection against enemy attacks.
Traditional Story Remus & Romulus Twin brothers, Remus and Romulus, were abandoned near the Tiber, rescued by a wolf and adopted by a shepherd. Romulus and Remus quarreled often until Romulus killed Remus. He then became king and name the city after himself. THE AENEID AENAES THE TROJAN AENAES SAILED THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AFTER THE GREEKS CAPTURED TROY. AFTER MANY ADVENTURES THEY LANDED AT THE MOUTH OF THE TIBER. THROUGH WARFARE AND MARRIAGE, AENAES UNITED THE NATIVE LATINS AND THE TROJANS. HE BECAME THE “FATHER” OF THE ROMANS.
The Greeks and Etruscans Greeks and Etruscans played a major role in shaping Roman Civilization. Greeks went to Southern Italy and Sicily between B.C. Romans learned to grow olives and grapes and adopted the Greek alphabet. Romans also modeled their architecture, sculpture and literature after the Greeks. Etruscans lived North of Rome in Etruria but moved south and took control of Rome. Etruscans were successful in mining and trade and had slaves. They transformed Rome into an organized city. The Etruscan army served as a model for the mighty Roman army.
The Birth of a Republic The ruling Etruscan family,the Tarquins, became very cruel. Romans rebelled and overthrew them to start a republic. A republic is a form of government in which the leader is not a king or queen but someone put in office by citizens with the right to vote. Over the next 200 years, the Romans fought war after war defeating the Latins and Greeks, taking over most of Italy. Romans were excellent soldiers. Soldiers were treated with tough discipline and they were taught not to give up easily. They also divided their army into smaller groups or legions of about 6,000 men. By splitting into smaller groups, they were more successful in cutting through enemy lines. Under the Roman Confederation, Romans gave full citizenship to some people, like the Latins. Allies had freedoms but had to pay taxes, and any revolts were swiftly put down.
Section 2- THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Two social classes for Roman citizens: Patricians- Wealthy landowners & Plebeians- Artisans, Shopkeepers, and owners of small farms. They could vote, had to pay taxes and had to serve in the army.
ROMAN GOVERNMENT TRIPARTITE- 1. People who ran the government 2. Made laws 3. Acted as judges Checks & Balances- No one group would get too much power. Top government officials- 2 Consuls-Patricians chosen every year. They headed the army and ran the government. Veto- Consuls had the power to veto or reject each other’s decisions. Praetors- Interpreted the law (judges)
Patricians vs. Plebeians Plebeians complained about having little power in the Roman Republic. Went on strike & left to start their own republic Patricians gradually began giving them equal rights. Eventually the Roman Republic become more representative in theory but it was still far from a full-fledged democracy (true equal rights)
Cincinnatus A dictator in present times is known as an oppressive ruler. In the Roman Republic, a dictator did have complete rule, but served the people and ruled temporarily in times of an emergency. Cincinnatus was a farmer when the Romans decided he should become dictator. As dictator in 460 B.C., he defeated Rome’s enemy and later returned to farming. Civic Duty- Citizens have a responsibility to help their country.
Roman Law Romans believed the law should apply to everyone equally “rule of law”. Some people in lower classes had few or no rights. Twelve Tables- First written laws that were the basis for all of Rome’s laws. (Romans only) Law of Nations- Principles of justice that applied to all people everywhere. (Everyone)
Rome vs Carthage Rome took over Italy and the Phoenicians from the Middle East took over North Africa. Both Carthaginians and Romans wanted control of Sicily. First Punic War- Romans invaded Carthaginians of Sicily. Second Punic War- After first loss, Carthaginians expanded empire to Southern Spain. Romans did not like the Carthaginians expanding throughout mainland Europe & attacked the Carthagianians. The Carthaginians then sent their greatest General Hannibal to attack Rome. Roman’s sent general Scipio to attack Carthage and Romans conquered Carthage. During Third Punic War, Romans destroyed Carthage. Roman’s eventually ruled all of the Mediterranean, calling it “mare nostrum”, “Our Sea”.
Chapter 8, Section 3 THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC
Trouble in the Republic Rome’s armies were victorious but many corrupt officials weakened Rome. Wealthy Romans created large farming estates called “latifundia”. This made small farmers go out of business. “Bread & Circuses”-Cheap food and entertainment helped many dishonest rulers come to power.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus TWO BROTHERS THAT BELIEVED ROMES PROBLEMS WERE CAUSED BY THE LOSS OF SMALL FARMS THESE TWO BROTHERS WERE KILLED WHEN THEY TRIED TO REDISTRIBUTE LAND FROM WEALTHY LANDOWNERS (WHO WERE ALSO THE DECISION MAKING SENATORS) AND GIVE IT BACK TO THE PEOPLE. In 107 B.C. a consul member named Marius hired the poor as soldiers. The soldiers were motivated by material rewards rather than a sense of duty. Soldiers for hire led to soldiers being loyal to their generals for money and land. Soon, this led to civil wars between ambitious men who wanted to seize power.
Julius Caesar In 60 B.C. three men were at the most powerful of Rome: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar. These men created a triumvirate- political alliance of three people. Pompey ruled Spain Crassus ruled Syria Caesar ruled Gaul Caesar won many battles and became a hero to lower classes. Senators feared he was becoming too popular and was going to seize power. After Crassus was killed, the Senate decided Pompey should return to Italy and rule alone. Caesar was faced with the decision to either obey the Senate and give up his army or march on Rome with his army, “Crossing the Rubicon” to start a civil war. Caesar fought against Pompey and defeated him.
Caesar declared himself dictator for life in 44 B.C. He also filled the Senate with people that were loyal to him. He granted citizenship to outside Italians, started new colonies and provided land for the landless which created jobs. This made Caesar very popular with Rome’s poor population. He created a new calendar with 12 months and 365 days and a leap year. The Julian calendar was used until 1582, where it was then modified and called Gregorian calendar. Caesar had many enemies that feared he wanted to be king. Senators Brutus and Cassius along with others stabbed Caesar to death on March 15, 44 B.C.
Rome Becomes an Empire Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian, Antony and Lepidus created the second triumvirate in 43. B.C. After forcing Lepidus to retire, Octavian ruled the west and Antony ruled the east. Antony fell in love with Cleopatra VII and formed an alliance with her. Octavian then declared war on Antony. Octavian crushed Antony and Cleopatra’s army and navy. They soon committed suicide as they realized Octavian was going to kill them too. Octavian knew people favored a republican form of government and reinstated the republic. He then named himself imperator or “Commander in Chief” and took the title Augustus- The revered or majestic one.
Chapter 8, Section 4 THE EARLY EMPIRE
Emperor Octavian/Augustus Augustus started an era of peace and the peak of the Roman Empire. This time was called “Pax Romana” or Roman Peace. Achievements: Built permanent, professional army of 150,000 men & Praetorian guard Expanded Rome’s empire Rebuilt Rome’s palaces, fountains and public buildings Re-organized government and reformed the Roman tax system Reformed legal system
Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius & Nero Tiberius and Claudius ran Rome well. Caligula was mentally ill. He had many people murdered, wasted money and gave his favorite horse a position of consul. He was eventually killed by the Praetorian Guard and replaced by Claudius. Nero killed his mother and two wives. He played music as Rome burned and eventually killed himself.
Vaspasian & the Good Emperors After Nero’s death, Vaspasian restored peace and order in Rome. He also began construction on the Colloseum- a huge amphiteatre. His two sons ruled after him and during Titus’s reign, Mt. Vesuvius destroyed the city of Pompeii, a major trade city. Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Pius and Marcus Aurelius are known as the “Good Emperors”. These emperors helped rebuild Rome, strengthen political ties, expand the empire, unify the Mediterranean and created a common currency.
Chapter 9 ROMAN CIVILIZATION
Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome
Roman Culture Romans admired and copied Greek culture and changed some aspects in order to suit their needs. Romans copied art, architecture and literature, but they were more practical and “realistic” in their design. Virgil wrote the Aeneid, an epic poem that describes the Trojan prince Aeneas’s adventure to Italy. Romans also had historians and playwrights. Romans spoke Latin. Latin became the language of Europe and was the basis for many modern languages like Italian, French, Spanish and English.
Roman Science & Engineering GREEK DOCTOR GALEN BROUGHT MEDICAL IDEAS TO ROME AND FOCUSED ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ANATOMY, THE STUDY OF BODY STRUCTURE. A SCIENTIST NAMED PTOLEMY OF ALEXANDRIA MAPPED THOUSANDS OF STARS AND PLACED EARTH IN THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE.
Daily Life in Rome Rome was one of the largest cities in the Ancient world and was home to over one million people. In the center on Rome was a forum. It was open space that served as a marketplace and public square. Most people in Rome were poor and lived in apartment buildings made of stone and wood. The wealthy lived in large villas on their country estates. Bread and circuses included entertaining events such as chariot races and gladiator contests. Gladiators fought animals and each other. They were usually enslaved people or criminals, but were comparable to sports heroes today.
Role of Men and Women The father was the head of the family. “Paterfamilias”, he had complete control, punished children and arranged marriages. Boys and girls were both taught at home, but boys later went to school. Girls stayed home and studied reading and writing. Women were not adults until they married and were not considered full citizens. They could however own land, run businesses and sell property. Women could not sit with men in public places, but had more freedoms than in other civilizations.
Slaves Slavery became prominent as the Roman Empire expanded. Slaves worked in homes, fields, mines and workshops. They also built roads, bridges and aqueducts. In 73 B.C. a slave revolt led by a gladiator named Spartacus defeated several Roman armies. They were later crucified. Religion Ancient Romans worshiped many gods and goddesses. Greek gods and goddesses were popular in Rome but were given Roman names. Romans came into contact with many other religions. Christianity threatened the Roman government and endured severe hardships.
The Decline of Rome Marcus Aurelius (last of the Emperors during the Pax Romana) died in A.D Commodus became emperor thereafter and was cruel and wasted Rome’s money. His bodyguards eventually killed him. Several problems contributed to the demise of Rome: Political and Social problems- Weak government, poor leadership and people stopped paying taxes. Law and order broke down and farmers grew less crops. Plague (disease) & inflation (money lost its value)
Invaders & New Rulers In the west, Germanic tribes invaded Roman farms and towns. In the east, Persians began fighting Romans. In A.D. 284, a general named Diocletian became emperor. He tried to instill new rules, but he did not have enough power or influence for Romans to obey him. In A.D. 305, a general named Constantine became emperor. Rome was still falling apart under his rule and he had to move the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium. He called this city Constantinople, which is now modern day Istanbul. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to become Christian. In A.D. 337, Theodosius gained control as emperor. He divided empire into the Western and Eastern Roman Empire. Rome was capitol in the West, Constantinople was capitol in the East.
Rome is Invaded Germanic tribes invaded from northern Europe and parts of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). The Huns entered Eastern Europe. ROME FELL IN A.D. 550 AFTER ROMULUS AUGUSTUS’S RULE ENDED. MANY ROMAN BELIEFS AND PRACTICES REMAINED IN USE. GERMANICS ADOPTED: Latin language Roman laws Christianity Many words in the English language and our ideas about government come from the Romans. We adopted the alphabet, latin based languages, architecture and Christianity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3P szVWZNWVA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3P szVWZNWVA
Section 3 THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Rise of the Byzantines Constantine had moved capitol of the Roman Empire to Constantinople. This city became the capitol of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire reached it’s high point in the A.D. 500’s. This empire was made up of Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs and Turks. Constantinople was located between the Black Sea and Aegean Sea, making it a safe shelter for trading ships. It was also a crossroads for trading routes throughout Europe. Constantinople was known as “New Rome”. Soon People became less Roman and more Greek and honored their Greek past. Mixing of many cultures happened.
Emperor Justinian Justinian became emperor of the Byzantine Empire in A.D He controlled military, made laws and was supreme judge. His wife Theodora helped him run the empire. She influenced Justinian to give women rights in the Byzantine Empire. Justinian tried to restore the Roman Empire but conquered too much too quickly and was unable to hold territory in the west. Justinian created a law code that would later be used by almost every country in Europe.
Byzantine Culture The Byzantine Empire lasted about 1,000 years. They traded throughout Europe and Asia. Through trade, Byzantine became very wealthy. Byzantine artists used mosaics or bits of colored glass or stone to create pictures. Byzantine women were expected to stay home and take care of their families, although Theodora gave women more individual rights. Boys usually went to school and studied language, law, math and medicine while girls stayed home and were taught at home.