2Has several roles simultaneously His Job DescriptionHas several roles simultaneouslyChief of State - ceremonial head; symbol of all people of the nationChief Executive - vested by the Const. w/executive powerChief Administrator -director of the federal govt. employs 2.7 million people and uses over $2 trillion a yrChief Diplomat-our chief spokesperson to the worldCommander in Chief-of our armed forcesChief Legislator-usually shapes our congressional agendaChief of Party-head of the party that holds the Ex BranchChief Citizen-representative of all of the people
3Formal qualifications Natural born citizen35 years oldLive in the U.S. for at least 14 yearsWhat Amendment changed the # of terms a President could serve?Presidential PayWho determines how much the President gets paid?CongressHow much does the President make?$400,000 (new in 2001)Also has a $50,000 a year expense allowanceHow can this allowance be spent???What other fringe benefits does the Presidency have??
4Presidential Succession & the VP The Presidential SuccessionIn what situations is the VP to become Acting President?When the President is better, he/she assumes the powers and duties of their elected office.What powers does the Constitution provide the VP?Preside over the Senate; help decide the question of presidential disability; technically “a President in Waiting”Vice-Presidential VacancyThe President is to nominate a VP and he/she is to be confirmed by both houses of Congress.Why do Presidential nominees choose the running mates they do?To “balance the ticket”
5The Original Presidential Selection The Framer’s plan for the Electoral CollegeHow did the rise of political parties put a kink in this plan?Why do we have the 12th Amendment?The Election of 1800Electoral College Debate https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xr7nZUANy3g
6Presidential Nominations There is nothing in the Constitution that deals with the election of candidates for the presidency.The convention system has been built entirely by the 2 major parties in American politics.The national committee makes arrangements for the party’s conventionTells each state how many delegates it can send to the convention.Each state has its own procedures for selecting their delegates (presidential primaries) – a great example of federalism….
7Presidential primary – an election which a party’s voters Choose some or all of the State party org. delegates to their party’s national convention, and/orExpress a preference among various contenders for their party’s presidential nomination.How have primaries changed from the early 1990’s to today?Winner –take-all vs. proportional representationCaucus-Convention ProcessThe older method for picking delegates.
8The National Convention The meetings at which the delegates vote to pick their presidential and vice-presidential candidatesIts 3 goalsOfficially name the candidatesBring the leading personalities of the party together for a common purposeAdopt the party’s platform – its formal statement of the basic principles, stands on policy matters, objectives for the campaign and beyond.The first 2 daysKeynote addressThe last 2 daysThe nomination of the party’s candidate for the presidency
9Elections Electoral College today How are elector’s chosen? Today they are expected to vote automatically for their party’s candidates for Pres and VP.How are elector’s chosen?Counting their votesThe Monday after the second Wednesday in December the electors meet at the State capitol.They cast 1 ballot for President and 1 ballot for VP.The ballots are signed, sealed and sent by registered mail to the president of the Senate in WashingtonOn January 6th the President of the Senate opens the votes and counts them before a joint session of CongressIt is on this date that the President and VP are formally elected
10There are 3 major defects in the electoral college The winner of the popular vote is not guaranteed the Presidency.2000 electionElectors are not required to vote in accord with the popular vote.Faithful electorsAny election could have to be decided in the House.If either major party fails to win a majority, the house casts ballots for President. (What are the problems with this?)
11Electoral College Supporters Proposed reformsThe district plan – electors would be chosen in each state in the same manner as members of CongressThe proportional plan – each pres. candidate would receive the same share of a State’s electoral vote as he or she received in the State’s popular voteDirect Popular Election – self explanatoryThe National bonus plan – the winner of the popular vote would receive a bonus of 102 electoral votes in addition to the regular Electoral College votes. If no one received at least 321 electoral votes, a run-off election would be held.Electoral College SupportersCritics exaggerate the dangers in the system.It is a known process.It identifies the winner quickly and certainly.
12The Growth of Power So why has it grown? Article II is very loosely written.With advancements, the citizens have expected the govt. to take on a larger role in different areas of their livesLook to the President in times of stress and emergency.Mass media has strengthen the Executive branch.What do you think the Presidents role should be?
13The President's Powers The power to execute covers all federal laws. Many different areas.The Ordinance power – power of the President to issue executive orders (regulation that has the effect of law)The Appointment Power – with Senate approvalAmbassadors and diplomatsCabinet members and their top aidesHeads of certain Independent agencies (EPA, NASA, etc)Federal judges, U.S. Marshalls, attorneysAll officers in the armed forcesWhat is the confirmation process?The Removal Power – does he have any; if so, how much?Anytime you hear the word resignation, they have probably been dismissed
14Diplomatic and Military Powers Treaty – formal agreement between 2 or more statesTreaties have the same legal standing as acts of Congress!They only require “the advice and consent” of the SenateExecutive Agreement – a pactDoes not even require consent from the Senate.Most come out prior legislation or treaties already madeRecognition – How powerful is this? Persona non grataCommander in Chief – powers, almost without limit200 + times – the pres. has the armed forces without approval from CongressHow far are the President’s powers stretched during wartime?War Powers Resolution of 1973 – what is it?
15Legislative and Judicial Powers Sends 3 messages to Capitol Hill each year. What are the 3? How influential is he? Why?Veto Power –He can sign the bill into lawVeto it, then Congress must get 2/3 app. To override it.Allows the bill to become a law by not acting on it.Or use a pocket veto. How does this process work?Line-item veto – the power to reject individual items in spending bills, if the bill wasn’t going to effect more than 100 people. (1996)Judicial – he is granted powers of clemency (to be used only in cases of federal offenses)Reprieve – postponement of the execution of a sentencePardon – legal forgiveness of a crimeCommutation - The power to commute the length of a sentence or a fine imposed by the courtAmnesty - A blanket pardon that is offered to a group of law violators.