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The Presidency/The Presidency in Action

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1 The Presidency/The Presidency in Action

2 Has several roles simultaneously
His Job Description Has several roles simultaneously Chief of State - ceremonial head; symbol of all people of the nation Chief Executive - vested by the Const. w/executive power Chief Administrator -director of the federal govt. employs 2.7 million people and uses over $2 trillion a yr Chief Diplomat-our chief spokesperson to the world Commander in Chief-of our armed forces Chief Legislator-usually shapes our congressional agenda Chief of Party-head of the party that holds the Ex Branch Chief Citizen-representative of all of the people

3 Formal qualifications
Natural born citizen 35 years old Live in the U.S. for at least 14 years What Amendment changed the # of terms a President could serve? Presidential Pay Who determines how much the President gets paid? Congress How much does the President make? $400,000 (new in 2001) Also has a $50,000 a year expense allowance How can this allowance be spent??? What other fringe benefits does the Presidency have??

4 Presidential Succession & the VP
The Presidential Succession In what situations is the VP to become Acting President? When the President is better, he/she assumes the powers and duties of their elected office. What powers does the Constitution provide the VP? Preside over the Senate; help decide the question of presidential disability; technically “a President in Waiting” Vice-Presidential Vacancy The President is to nominate a VP and he/she is to be confirmed by both houses of Congress. Why do Presidential nominees choose the running mates they do? To “balance the ticket”

5 The Original Presidential Selection
The Framer’s plan for the Electoral College How did the rise of political parties put a kink in this plan? Why do we have the 12th Amendment? The Election of 1800 Electoral College Debate

6 Presidential Nominations
There is nothing in the Constitution that deals with the election of candidates for the presidency. The convention system has been built entirely by the 2 major parties in American politics. The national committee makes arrangements for the party’s convention Tells each state how many delegates it can send to the convention. Each state has its own procedures for selecting their delegates (presidential primaries) – a great example of federalism….

7 Presidential primary – an election which a party’s voters
Choose some or all of the State party org. delegates to their party’s national convention, and/or Express a preference among various contenders for their party’s presidential nomination. How have primaries changed from the early 1990’s to today? Winner –take-all vs. proportional representation Caucus-Convention Process The older method for picking delegates.

8 The National Convention
The meetings at which the delegates vote to pick their presidential and vice-presidential candidates Its 3 goals Officially name the candidates Bring the leading personalities of the party together for a common purpose Adopt the party’s platform – its formal statement of the basic principles, stands on policy matters, objectives for the campaign and beyond. The first 2 days Keynote address The last 2 days The nomination of the party’s candidate for the presidency

9 Elections Electoral College today How are elector’s chosen?
Today they are expected to vote automatically for their party’s candidates for Pres and VP. How are elector’s chosen? Counting their votes The Monday after the second Wednesday in December the electors meet at the State capitol. They cast 1 ballot for President and 1 ballot for VP. The ballots are signed, sealed and sent by registered mail to the president of the Senate in Washington On January 6th the President of the Senate opens the votes and counts them before a joint session of Congress It is on this date that the President and VP are formally elected

10 There are 3 major defects in the electoral college
The winner of the popular vote is not guaranteed the Presidency. 2000 election Electors are not required to vote in accord with the popular vote. Faithful electors Any election could have to be decided in the House. If either major party fails to win a majority, the house casts ballots for President. (What are the problems with this?)

11 Electoral College Supporters
Proposed reforms The district plan – electors would be chosen in each state in the same manner as members of Congress The proportional plan – each pres. candidate would receive the same share of a State’s electoral vote as he or she received in the State’s popular vote Direct Popular Election – self explanatory The National bonus plan – the winner of the popular vote would receive a bonus of 102 electoral votes in addition to the regular Electoral College votes. If no one received at least 321 electoral votes, a run-off election would be held. Electoral College Supporters Critics exaggerate the dangers in the system. It is a known process. It identifies the winner quickly and certainly.

12 The Growth of Power So why has it grown?
Article II is very loosely written. With advancements, the citizens have expected the govt. to take on a larger role in different areas of their lives Look to the President in times of stress and emergency. Mass media has strengthen the Executive branch. What do you think the Presidents role should be?

13 The President's Powers The power to execute covers all federal laws.
Many different areas. The Ordinance power – power of the President to issue executive orders (regulation that has the effect of law) The Appointment Power – with Senate approval Ambassadors and diplomats Cabinet members and their top aides Heads of certain Independent agencies (EPA, NASA, etc) Federal judges, U.S. Marshalls, attorneys All officers in the armed forces What is the confirmation process? The Removal Power – does he have any; if so, how much? Anytime you hear the word resignation, they have probably been dismissed

14 Diplomatic and Military Powers
Treaty – formal agreement between 2 or more states Treaties have the same legal standing as acts of Congress! They only require “the advice and consent” of the Senate Executive Agreement – a pact Does not even require consent from the Senate. Most come out prior legislation or treaties already made Recognition – How powerful is this? Persona non grata Commander in Chief – powers, almost without limit 200 + times – the pres. has the armed forces without approval from Congress How far are the President’s powers stretched during wartime? War Powers Resolution of 1973 – what is it?

15 Legislative and Judicial Powers
Sends 3 messages to Capitol Hill each year. What are the 3? How influential is he? Why? Veto Power – He can sign the bill into law Veto it, then Congress must get 2/3 app. To override it. Allows the bill to become a law by not acting on it. Or use a pocket veto. How does this process work? Line-item veto – the power to reject individual items in spending bills, if the bill wasn’t going to effect more than 100 people. (1996) Judicial – he is granted powers of clemency (to be used only in cases of federal offenses) Reprieve – postponement of the execution of a sentence Pardon – legal forgiveness of a crime Commutation - The power to commute the length of a sentence or a fine imposed by the court Amnesty - A blanket pardon that is offered to a group of law violators.

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