2 Scene i, PreviewTwo characters, Flavius and Marullus, are walking the streets of Rome where many citizens are celebrating Caesar’s triumph over Pompey. They run into two men, a carpenter and a quick witted cobbler, and inquire about their garb. The commoners are celebrating Caesar’s return, and Flavius and Murellus are tearing down celebratory decorations and scolding the commoners for being so quick to hop on the bandwagon.
3 Faces Flavius Marullus Carpenter (First Commoner) Cobbler (Second Commoner)
5 Ideas/Themes to KnowPower and pride in excess – Caesar is accused by Flavius of being excessively proud and desirous of power. He scolds the commoners as they celebrate Caesar’s triumphant battle.
6 Quotes“What conquest brings he home? / What tributaries follow him to Rome / To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels?” (I.i.31-33)“Pray to the gods to intermit the plague / That needs must light on this ingratitude” (I.i.53-54)“These growing feathers plucked from Caesar’s wing / Will make him fly an ordinary pitch” (I.i.71-72)
7 Scene ii – PreviewCaesar, Calpurnia, Brutus, Portia, and others are all gathered to celebrate the feast of Lupercal. The soothsayer calls out to Caesar telling him to beware the Ides of March (March 15, the next day). Brutus and Cassius meet and begin to discuss Caesar, and Cassius drops the idea in Brutus’ mind that he thinks Rome would be much happier were Brutus the ruler. Brutus hears shouting and expresses his fears of Caesar becoming king. Cassius recounts a story of a time when he saved the weak Caesar from a river and a time when Caesar almost died of a fever.
8 Scene ii – PreviewCaesar returns from the celebration outdoors looking a bit ill. Caesar expresses his concerns about Cassius to Antony. Casca, Brutus and Cassius go outside to talk about what all the shouting was about, and Casca tells that Caesar was offered the crown three times by Antony and refused thee times. Upon the third time, he fell sick (epileptic seizure) yet the crowd did not cease celebrating and expressing their love. He concludes by telling that Flavius and Marullus were deprived of their positions because they removed decorations from Caesar’s statues. Cassius while alone has a soliloquy in which he confesses that he believes he can manipulate Brutus by forging letters by Roman citizens declaring their love and support for Brutus and he will throw the notes in Brutus’ window that evening.
11 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Antony states that when Caesar wants something, it is as good as done.Arrogance – Caesar brushes off the Soothsayer’s advice and calls him a “dreamer.”
12 Quotes “Beware the Ides of March” (I.ii.15) “I was born as free as Caesar, so were you. / We both have fed as well, and we can both / Endure the winter’s cold as well as he” (I.ii )“For who so firm that cannot be seduced?” (I.ii.306)
13 Scene iii - PreviewCasca has witnessed a lot of bad omens on this night. The sky is dropping hot fire, a boy’s hand was lit on fire, yet it didn’t burn, there was a lion at the Capitol, women claimed they saw men walking the streets covered in flames, and a nighttime bird (owl) was in the market during daytime! (Casca claims the last is the strangest of all…) Casca insists that there is danger ahead. Cassius shows up and believes that these are all signs that the gods agree with him in regards to Caesar that Rome’s government is headed toward danger.
14 Scene iii - PreviewCasca tells Cassius that the senators want to make Caesar king the next day. A conspirator named Cinna appears and explains the conversion of Brutus. Cassius gives Cinna the letters and believes that this will be the last thing they have to do to finally get Brutus on their side.
17 Ideas/Themes to KnowIgnorance – Cassius says all the horrible things that are happening are merely signs that something good is coming and that Casca should not be frightened.
18 Quotes“Indeed it is a strange disposed time; / But men may construe things after their fashion, / Clean from the purpose of things themselves” (I.iii.33-35)“He sits high in all the people’s hearts, / And that which would appear offence in us / His countenance, like richest alchemy, Will change to virtue and to worthiness” (I.iii )
20 Scene i - PreviewBrutus paces in his garden knowing that Caesar is going to be offered the crown but wondering whether or not it will go to his head. He considers killing him. Brutus’ servant comes with a letter that was near his window. It was a “Roman” telling him his desires through the letter. The men show up to his house: Cassius and the conspirators. Cassius introduces them and suggests Brutus swear an oath, but Brutus says that oaths are for weak men. Cassius suggests killing Antony as well, but Brutus claims it would be too bloody and that Antony is harmless.
21 Scene i - PreviewCassius questions whether or not Caesar will come to the Capitol due to the soothsayer, but Decius says he will convince Caesar by boosting his ego.Portia enters the garden when the men leave. She notes Brutus’ strange behavior and begs that he tell her his secrets. She proves her worthiness by stabbing herself in her thigh. Brutus replies that he wishes he were worthy of his honorable wife, and he leaves her at that to answer the door. Ligarius enters, looking sick. Brutus and Ligarius leave to discuss the plans.
24 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Portia gashes her thigh in order to get Brutus’ attention. She hopes she can convince him that she is smart, reliable, and from a strong lineage.Dedication – Brutus is moved by Lucius’ dedication to his job.Dedication – Ligarius comes to Brutus’ house during the middle of the night and asks if Brutus needs help. He agrees to become a part of the conspiracy.
25 Quotes “Brutus, thou sleep’st. Awake, and see thyself” (II.i.46) “I grant I am a woman; but withal a woman that Lord Brutus took to wife; I grant I am a woman; but with a women well reputed, Cato’s daughter. Think you I am no stranger than my sex, being so father’d and so husbanded? Tell me your counsels, I will not disclose’em. I have made a strong proof of my constancy, giving myself a voluntary wound here, in the thigh: can I bear that with patience, and not my husband’s secrets?” (II.i.292)
26 Scene ii – PreviewCalpurnia is having nightmare upon nightmare about Caesar and attempts to keep him from going to the Capitol. She dreamt a statue of Caesar was spewing blood like a fountain. She convinces him to stay, and when the servants come to get him, he says he will stay. When Decius asks why he will be absent, Caesar tells him the truth and not that he is ill which is what Calpurnia wants him to say. He tells him of Calpurnia’s reservations and dream, and Decius ‘reinterprets’ the dream for Caesar, saying that the blood she saw represents the generosity of Rome and their revival due to Caesar’s rising power. Caesar decides to go.
29 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Calpurnia begs Caesar to stay on her knees. She is willing to be the one who is shamed as long as her husband is safe.Ignorance – Caesar ignores Calpurnia’s several warnings simply due to the fact that Decius tickled his fancy by speaking so highly of him.
30 Scene iii – PreviewArtemidorus is carrying a letter which he reads aloud near the capitol. It is to warn Caesar of Brutus, Cassius, Casca and names all of the other conspirators, saying they are against Caesar. He says he will stand there until Caesar passes by so that he can save his life.
33 Quotes"Caesar, beware of Brutus; take heed of Cassius; come not near Casca; have an eye to Cinna; trust not Trebonius; mark well Metellus Cimber; Decius Brutus loves thee not; thou hast wrong'd Caius Ligarius. There is but one mind in all these men, and it is bent against Caesar. If thou beest not immortal, look about you: security gives way to conspiracy. The mighty gods defend thee!" (II.iii.1-8)
34 Scene iv – PreviewPortia tells Lucius, their servant, to go to the capitol. Portia is worried for Brutus because he didn’t look well that morning, but she’s not clear on what’s going on. She does, however, suspect the murder. The soothsayer comes to Brutus’ house and tells Portia that Caesar has yet to get to the Capitol and he hopes that he can get there before Caesar to warn him again.
37 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Portia is worried about what will happen to Brutus. She wishes to warn him because she feels that something bad is coming, but when she sends her servant out to find him, she tells him to tell Brutus that she is happy.
39 Scene i – PreviewCaesar arrives at the capitol with the conspirators escorting him. The Artimedorus and the Soothsayer (for the last time) try to warn Caesar about the danger of the day’s events, but he dismisses them, claiming that his personal matters come last. Metellus Cimber begs Caesar to pardon his brother and release him from banishment, but Caesar goes on a rant about how he is as constant as the North Star. Casca then stabs Caesar. Everyone gets their turn and Brutus goes last. Caesar then dies. The cover themselves in Caesar’s blood and make out for the capitol to show and explain their deed when Antony’s servant shows up with a message asking for Antony’s safe passage to hear why the conspirators have done what they’ve done.
40 Scene i – Preview cont’d When they explain themselves, Antony shakes hands with them and mourns Caesar’s body. He asks to speak at Caesar’s funeral. Brutus, quite a noble yet naïve man, is quick to accept this request, but Cassius is a bit more hesitant. They agree that Brutus will go first, explain their deed, make it clear that Antony is only speaking by permission, and that he can say anything nice about Caesar but not anything bad about the conspirators. They agree. After they leave, Antony asks for Caesar’s forgiveness for being so kind and friendly with his conspirators. He prophesizes that war will come from Caesar’s brutal murder and that Caesar will seek revenge from the spirit world. Octavius, Caesar’s grand nephew and adopted son, is on his way to Rome and sends his servant to inform Antony. He tells the servant to wait a while, see the speech, and see how Rome responds before Octavius proceeds.
41 FacesCaesarBrutus, Cassius, the conspiratorsMark Antony
43 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Antony’s servant comes to the conspirators with a false message explaining Antony’s forgiveness for the men who have just murdered Caesar.Dedication – Antony still expresses his grief for Caesar’s death even though he is in the presence of Brutus and Cassius.Dedication – Brutus claims he loved Caesar unconditionally and is still going to bury Caesar with all military honors and is willing to let Antony speak at the funeral.
44 Items/Themes to KnowArrogance – Caesar compares himself to the north star and claims that he’s superior to everyone else.Judgment – Caesar immediately rushes to deny Metellus Cimber’s brother’s pardon.Naiveté – Brutus is quick to accept Antony’s request to speak at the funeral.
45 Quotes “What touches us ourselves shall be last served.” (III.i.8) “Constant as the Northern Star” (III.i.60)“Et tu, Brute?—Then fall Caesar.” (III.i.76)
46 Scene ii – PreviewBrutus enters forum and says the he did not kill Caesar because he didn’t love him but that he loved Rome more. He asks if he’s offended anyone and no one claims so. Antony brings Caesar’s body. Brutus says that Antony ha nothing to do with the murder but that he is now a part of the commonwealth. Brutus has riled up the crowd to believe that Caesar was a tyrant and deserved to die. Brutus leaves and Antony speaks. He sticks to her terms but cleverly contradicts everything Brutus said. He claims he has Caesar’s will but puts off reading it. All of the plebeians stand around Caesar’s body and weep at the sight of his wounds. He reads the will. The Citizens swear to avenge Caesar’s death. Octavius’ servant arrives, says Octavius is in Rome and that Brutus and Cassius have fled.
49 Ideas/Themes to KnowPersuasion – Upon revealing that he has Caesar’s will, Antony also uncovers Caesar’s body to show the wounds inflicted upon him by Brutus and the others. The Romans are enraged when they realize how dedicated Caesar really was to Rome.
50 Quotes“Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.” (III.ii.18)“Brutus is an honorable man.” (III.ii.84/148)“When the poor hath cried, Caesar hath wept” (III.ii.88)“you know how Caesar loved you… ‘Tis good you know not that you are his heirs” (III.ii )
51 Scene iii – PreviewCinna the poet, not the conspirator, is walking through the city. A group of men stop him and ask his name. When they hear that his name is Cinna, they drag him away and beat him to death.
52 Ideas/Themes to KnowJudgment – The plebeians are quick to judge every man they encounter as being a man who is against Rome.
54 PreviewAntony, Octavius, and Lepidus get together to discuss which Romans need to be killed. Antony sends Lepidus off to fetch Caesar’s will in an attempt to save money by redirecting his legacies, and after Lepidus departs, Antony expresses his concerns that this leader of the is not actually worthy. Brutus is at his camp when Cassius shows up and they go into his tent to talk. Cassius is displeased with Brutus and accuses him for wronging him by not taking his advice about Lucius Pella. The conversation is heated. Name-calling happens and Brutus doesn’t budge his stance but sits back and lets Cassius talk himself out of the argument. Cassius shows his insecurities and they finally both admit to being ill tempered and hug it off. Brutus explains that Portia is dead. Titinius and Messala enter and are told about how the triumvirate has killed one hundred senators, then Messala tells him that Portia is dead. Brutus suggest going to Philippi; Cassius disagrees. Brutus gives his reasons as to why he wants to go and they agree they will, although Cassius is still reluctant. Brutus gets ready for bead and tries to read, then he sees the Ghost of Caesar. He tells Brutus that they will see each other at Philippi.
55 FacesAntonyOctaviusLepidusBrutusCassiusMessalaGhost of Caesar
57 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Brutus tells Cassius about Portia’s death and how she swallowed coals because she feared what Brutus’ fate was.Rush to Judgment – Although Cassius makes good points about why NOT to go to Philippi, Brutus thinks his points are better.
58 Quotes“Strike as thou didst at Caesar; for I know / When thou didst hate him worst, thou loved’st him better/ Than ever thou loved’st Cassius” (IV.ii )“To tell thee thou shalt see me at Philippi.” (IV.ii.290)
60 PreviewOctavius and Antony enter the battlefield and Brutus and Cassius show up to speak to them. They insult one another and Octavius promises that Caesar’s death will be avenged. They then go to get ready. Cassius has seen some bad omens and utters his concerns to Brutus and they say their goodbyes. Brutus explains that he would rather die than return to Rome as a prisoner. The battle begins and Brutus feels that they are strong enough to attack Octavius’ army. Cassius is standing with Titinius and looks at Antony’s troops entering his camp. He sees that his tents are burning and asks Titinius if they are, and he confirms, so he sends Titinius to find out if the troops are friend or foe. Cassius asks Pindarus to go up the hill and watch Titinius, and he sees that men are closing in on Titinius and once Titinius gets off his horse, men cheer. Cassius believes his best friend has been captured and asks Pindarus to stab him with his sword. His last words are that Caesar has been avenged by the same sword that killed him. Pindarus then runs from Rome and banishes himself.
61 Preview Cont’dThen…shocker…Titinius enters and sees Cassius’ body. He realizes what he thinks has happened and then Titinius stabs himself. Brutus enters and finds the bodies. Lucillius pretends that he is Brutus and is captured by the opposing army. Antony recognizes him and asks his men to find Brutus and if the do, treat him well. Brutus is unwell and asks his men to hold his sword so that he may run against it. The ghost of Caesar appears and says it’s time for Brutus to die. He does so by running onto his sword. Antony enters and Lucillius claims he’s glad that Brutus died by his own hand. Antony speaks over the body claiming that Brutus was the noblest Roman of all because the whole time he really did do what he did for the good of Rome where as the other conspirators did so because they were envies. They agree to bury him honorably and the men leave to celebrate.
64 Ideas/Themes to KnowDedication – Pindarus banishes himself from Rome. He was a very dedicated servant.Dedication – Titinius then kills himself with Cassius’ sword. Even though it was not his fault that things happened the way they did, Titinius felt guilty for the misunderstanding.Excess – Octavius intends to avenge every single one of the men who killed Caesar.Excess – Antony states that Brutus was pure and was the only conspirator who did things without evil intent.
65 Quotes “for ever and ever farewell” (V.i.117) “O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet.” (V.iii.93)“Caesar, now be still. / I killed not thee with half so good a will” (V.v.50-51)
66 Essay TermsHookThe first sentence(s) in the introduction to get the audience interested in the subject. This could be a question, an anecdote, etc. However, it should not be too long.ClaimThe claim will be the answer to the question, and all supporting details and elements in the essay will all tie back to the claim.Evidence from TextThis is a DIRECT QUOTE from the play that supports the CLAIM.
67 Essay Terms Elaboration The quote is EXPLAINED in your own words, and you elaborate on why the quote supports your CLAIM.Supporting DetailsAny extra information that goes along with the provided QUOTE and helps support your CLAIM.Counter-argumentA statement that goes against your CLAIM and addresses all opposing views and proves why the opposing views are wrong and your CLAIM is right. (1 – 3 sentences)