Presentation on theme: "莎劇賞析之五：《凱撒大帝》 Julius Caesar 董 崇 選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 懂更懂學習英文網站負責人 網址："— Presentation transcript:
莎劇賞析之五：《凱撒大帝》 Julius Caesar 董 崇 選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 懂更懂學習英文網站負責人 網址： http://dgdel.nchu.edu.tw
I. The Plot: Type: Historical Tragedy ( 歷史悲劇 ) Time: 44 B.C. Locale: Rome First presented: 1601
II. Principal Characters: Brutus 布魯塔斯 : one of the leading conspirators to kill Caesar Cassius 卡希爾斯 : another one of the leading conspirators Julius Caesar 凱撒 : the mighty ruler of Rome Antonius (Antony) 安東尼 : the close friend of Caesar Calpurnia: wife of Caesar Portia: wife of Brutus Decius Brutua: another conspirator against Caesar
III. The Story: 第一幕 : Two tribunes disperse the Roman populace in the streets. Caesar attends the race on the Feast of Lupercal. A soothsayer warns him to beware of the Ides of March. Cassius sounds Brutus out about Caesar’s growing power. Casca describes how Antony three times offered Caesar a crown, which he refused, although with greater reluctance each time. Cassius speaks his mind to Casca and finds him disposed to join in his conspiracy. They send Cinna to “plant” a message designed to stir up Brutus.
III. The Story: 第二幕 : Brutus debates with himself about Caesar’s threat. Soon after, he makes a compact with Cassius et al. to assassinate Caesar. Calpurnia tries to prevent Caesar’s going to the Capitol because of many ill omens witnessed in Rome. Decius comes and talks Caesar into going. Artemidorus tries to warn Caesar in the street, but in vain. Portia nervously waits for the success of Brutus’ plot. The soothsayer intends to warn Caesar a second time, but Caesar still knows no danger.
III. The Story: 第三幕 : The conspirators crowd around Caesar on a pretext and stab him to death. Brutus persuades them to leave Antony unharmed and let him speak at Caesar’s funeral after he himself explains their deed to the public. Antony cleverly works on the emotions of the mob and stirs them to seek out and kill Caesar’s assassins. Octavius arrives and Cassius escapes from the city. Cinna the poet is assailed by the mob and killed because he has the same name as one of the conspirators.
III. The Story: 第四幕 : Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus plan to kill their enemies. Lipidus goes to get Caesar’s will. Brutus becomes displeased with Cassius, who then comes to discuss their differences. Brutus rebukes Cassius for condoning an officer who took bribes. The two exchange bitter words. Cassius softens and Brutus tells him that Portia is dead. Titinius and Messala enter to confer on military strategy. Brutus decides that their forces should meet Antony and Octavius at Philippi. The Ghost of Caesar appears and tells Brutus that he will see him again at the battlefield.
III. The Story: 第五幕 : The forces of Antony and Brutus meet and they exchange taunts before engaging. Brutus dispatches Messala with instructions for his legions. Cassius mistakenly thinks that Titinius is captured. So he forces his slave Pindarus to kill him with the sword with which he killed Caesar. Lucilius is captured and he assures Antony that Brutus himself will never be taken alive. Facing defeat, Brutus kills himself. Antony and Octavius promise all honorable rites of burial for their noble adversary.
IV. Famous Lines: “He had a fever when he was in Spain, And when the fit was on him, I did mark How he did shake; ‘tis true, this god did shake; His coward lips did from their color fly, And that same eye whose bend doth awe the world Did lose his luster; I did hear him groan...” --Cassius to Brutus about Caesar “Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look; He thinks too much: such men are dangerous.” --Caesar to Antony
IV. Famous Lines: “Poor man! I know he would not be a wolf, But that he sees the Romans are but sheep; He were no lion, were not Romans hinds. Those that with haste will make a mighty fire Begin it with weak straws. What trash is Rome, What rubbish, and what offal, when it serves 無用之物 For the base matter to illuminate So vile a thing as Caesar!” --Cassius to Casca
IV. Famous Lines: “But it is a common proof, That lowliness is young ambition’s ladder, Whereto the climber upward turns his face; But when he once attains the upmost round, He then unto the ladder turns his back, Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees By which he did ascend.” --Brutus to himself
IV. Famous Lines: “When beggars die, there are no comets seen; The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.” --Calpurnia “Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once.” --Caesar “Et tu, Brute—Then fall Caesar!” --Caesar “O mighty Caesar! Dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?” --Antony
IV. Famous Lines: “Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds, Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood, It would become me better than to close In terms of friendship with thine enemies.” --Antony “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men?” --Brutus to the plebeians
IV. Famous Lines: “O masters! if I were disposed to stir Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong, Who, you all know, are honorable men. I will not do them wrong; I rather choose To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, Than I will wrong such honorable men. ” --Antony to the plebeians
IV. Famous Lines: “I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them, The good is oft interred with their bones; So let it be with Caesar.” --Antony to the plebeians “I tell you that which you yourselves do know, Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poor dumb mouths, And bid them speak for me.” --Antony to the plebeians “When love begins to sicken and decay, It uses an enforced ceremony.” --Brutus to Lucilius
V. Discussion: –If the play is a tragedy, whose tragedy is it? –What tragic flaw does Caesar, Brutus, and Cassius each have? –What is suggested about the mob in the play? –What is the best “virtue” of Antony? –What from the play have you learned about power struggle ?