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Government Institutions: Legislative Branch. Congressional Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Government Institutions: Legislative Branch. Congressional Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Government Institutions: Legislative Branch

2 Congressional Structure

3 Congress House 435 members Representatives based on population 2 year term Serve the constituents of their DISTRICTS Senate 100 members 2 per state 6 year term Serve the constituents of their STATES

4 House of Representatives Must be 25 years of age (when seated, not when elected). Must have been a citizen of the United States for 7 years. Must be an inhabitant of the state from which elected. (NOTE: custom, but not the Constitution, requires that a representative live in the district that he or she represents.) Serve a two year term.

5 Senate Must be 30 years of age (when seated, not when elected). Must have been a citizen of the United States for 9 years. Must be an inhabitant of the state from which elected. Serve a six year term; 1/3 up for re-election at a time

6 Determining Representatives in the House CensusCensus Every 10 years to determine population ReapportionmentReapportionment – Congress divides the 435 House seats between states based on population Redistricting -Redistricting - state legislature draws the new district lines Gerrymandering -Gerrymandering - drawing district lines based on some characteristic other than just population

7 Original Gerrymander

8 Non-gerrymandered district Gerrymandered district

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10 Terms and Sessions Congressional Term for 2 yrs Session- 2 sessions Jan 3 rd – Dec., Jan - July 31 st Work day: Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Working time: Noon to 5 – 6 o’clock. Recess = temporary break Special Session= Outside of regular hours Joint Session= Both House and Senate “State of the Union” Called by president

11 Congressional Leadership

12 CongressCongress Senate Upper House House of Representatives Lower House President of Senate VP of USA President Pro Tempore Senior Ranking Member Of the Majority Party 435 Representatives Elected by Population House Minority Leader Speaker of House Majority Leader 100 Senators 2 from each State Senate Minority Leader House Majority Floor Leader Senate Majority Leader House Minority Whip House Majority Whip Senate Majority Whip Senate Minority Whip

13 Leadership in the House of Representatives SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE Selected by the majority party John Boehner R - Ohio Job: Presiding Officer of the House Power: Decides which committee a bill goes to.

14 Leadership in the House of Representatives SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE Selected by the majority party Majority Leader Majority Leader Job: Support legislation for party and get it passed Eric Cantor R - Virginia Minority Leader Minority Leader Job: Leads Opposition to control the majority party Nancy Pelosi D - California

15 Leadership in the House of Representatives SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE Selected by the majority party Majority Leader Minority Leader Majority Whip Job:Assists the leader, rounds up votes, heads large group of deputy and assistant whips. Minority Whip Job: Assists the leader, rounds up votes, heads large group of deputy and assistant whips. Kevin McCarthy R - California Steny Hoyer D - Maryland

16 Georgia’s Representation Georgia currently has 14 congressional districts. McEachern’s current congressional district is the 13 th represented by: Congressman David Scott

17 Georgia Delegation Jack Kingston, Sanford Bishop, Lynn Westmoreland, Hank Johnson, John Lewis, Tom Price Rob Woodall, Austin Scott, Doug Collins, Paul Broun, Phil Gingrey, John Barrow, David Scott, Tom Graves

18 Leadership in the United States Senate PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE The Vice President of the United States Vice President Joseph Biden Job: President of the Senate Power: Breaks tie in legislation. Otherwise does not vote.

19 Leadership in the United States Senate PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE The Vice President of the United States Senator Patrick Leahy D – Vermont PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE Selected by majority party. Usually most senior member of the Senate majority party Job: Presides over the Senate when the Vice President is absent.

20 Leadership in the United States Senate Harry Reid D - Nevada Mitch McConnell R - Kentucky Majority Leader Majority Leader Leads the Democratic party Job: Guides legislation Minority Leader Minority Leader Leads the Republican party Job: Leads Opposition

21 Other House & Senate Positions Clerk of House does administrative duties. Parliamentarian keeps rule on debate. Chaplain prays before debate. Sergeant at Arms keep order. Official Reporters writes every single word in meeting. Post Master sees that everything is distributed.

22 Georgia’s Representation Senator Saxby Chambliss AND Senator Johnny Isakson

23 Congressional Rules and Benefits

24 Congressional Expectations Loyalty to chamber – don’t talk about them Civility to each other – Polite, courteous Seniority – the most senior members get more choice of assignments Specialization - become an expert in an area Reciprocity (aka logrolling)-support for each others bill. “I’ll help pass your transportation bill now if you help pass my health care bill when it comes to the floor.”

25 Congressional Representation Delegate – follows the advice and instruction of constituents Trustee - assume the people put you in, so now you vote your conscience Politico - uses whichever will help politically; become a delegate on pork barrel issues and a trustee on all others

26 Compensation and Benefits Salaries - $174,000 per year Senate Leadership Majority Party Leader - $193,400 Minority Party Leader - $193,400 House Leadership Speaker of the House - $223,500 Majority Leader - $193,400 Minority Leader - $193,400

27 Compensation and Benefits Offices – home state & DC Expense Accounts Stationary and Postage (Franking privilege) Pension Plan and Retirement Income Incumbency – advantage of already holding office – helps in re-election

28 Congressional Powers

29 Enumeratedlisted in Article I Section 8; most important Impliednecessary and proper/elastic clause do what necessary to carry out enumerated allows for today's laws Deniedex post facto bill of attainder suspend writ of habeas corpus grant titles of nobility

30 Delegated/Enumerated/Expressed Powers are: Specifically Granted in Constitution Legislative Powers 1.Provide common defense 2.Make citizenship rules 3.Run military (armed services) 4.Declare War 5.Supervise Washington DC 6.Raise Money (taxes) 7.Regulate Trade 8.Spend Money (pay bills, fund programs) 9.Coin money (and set value) 10.Run Post Office & Roads 11.Issue Copyrights & Patents 12.Establish Federal Courts 13.Set number of justices on Supreme Court

31 Non-legislative Powers 1.Advice and Consent (Senate approve treaties & appointments) 2.Impeachment Charges (House) 3.Convict & Remove Impeached Officials (Senate) 4.Admit new states 5.Amend the Constitution 6.Count Electoral Votes (Senate Counts; House votes if not 270 vote) 7.Serve as “watchdog” over government

32 Prohibited Powers - Limits on Congress   writ of habeas corpus   Can’t put you in jail without telling you charges   bills of attainder   Can’t pass law that punishes group without trial   ex post facto laws   Can’t pass a retroactive law charging you for something that was legal when you did it Implied Powers are: Laws needed to help carry out the enumerated powers (Necessary & Proper/Elastic Clause)

33 Site chosen in 1791; British burned in feet to top of statue; Freedom statue on top is 19 feet 6 inches sits on 3.5 acres; 168 acres around it designated to capitol diameter of rotunda 95'; can stand on one side and hear whisper on other side original rule was that nothing could be higher than freedom statue; exception was made for Washington monument Tidbits about the Capitol

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36 Capitol Building Architecture 360 Tour of Capitol Capitol Grounds Learning Modules


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