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Project Development and Mitigation Options

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Presentation on theme: "Project Development and Mitigation Options"— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Development and Mitigation Options
Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane (VAM) Project Development and Mitigation Options Jayne Somers, Ph.D., P.E. US Environmental Protection Agency 13th North American Mine Ventilation Symposium Sudbury, Canada June 14, 2010

2 Presentation Overview
Background on VAM Emissions U.S.VAM Data Summary Mitigation Technologies Oxidation: Catalytic and Thermal Gas Turbines Hybrid Waste Coal/VAM Rotary Kiln

3 Global Recovery & Utilization of CMM
Degasification systems CMM drainage at active underground coal mines: countries CMM recovery and utilization projects At active and/or abandoned (closed) coal mines: countries 227 total CMM projects worldwide, 36 proposed or in development Avoided methane emissions: > 3.8 billion cubic meters annually (> 54 MMTCO2E / yr) 3

4 Background on VAM Mine safety regulations require gassy underground coal mines to assure that methane concentrations in the mine workings are maintained at safe levels - Well below the lower explosive limit (5% in air) Mines employ large scale ventilation systems to vent methane to the atmosphere - Pre-mine drainage can supplement ventilation

5 Background on VAM Ventilation air methane (VAM) is largest source of coal mine methane (CMM) emissions - 54% of all U.S. CMM emissions in 2005 Capturing and using VAM is challenging - Large airflows: 100,000 to 1 million cfm ( m3/s) - Low concentrations: range 0.1 to 1.0%, often 0.3 to 0.5% Variable, both flow and concentration

6 Harnessing U.S. Ventilation Air Methane (VAM)
Largest source of coal mine methane Low methane concentrations (<1%) Technologies emerging to harness ventilation air methane - As primary fuel - As secondary fuel

7 Summary of U.S. MSHA VAM Data
Mines >0.3% methane Quarterly sampling 39 mines with 78 exhausts 0.3 – 1.26% CH4

8 Global VAM emissions (2002)
Country (Bm3) % world China United States Ukraine Russia Australia Total World 17.3

9 Harnessing Ventilation Air Methane (VAM) (cont’d)
As Supplemental Fuel at Appin-Tower Collieries (Australia) Installed in 1995 54 x 1 MW IC engines produce power from gob gas VAM used as feed air: - supplied 7% of energy

10 VAM Oxidation Technologies
Thermal Flow Reversal Reactors (TFRR) Commercial project: MEGTEC Systems Pilot project : Biothermica

11 VAM Oxidation Technologies
Durr Systems (Wisconsin, USA) Gulf Coast Environmental (Texas, USA) Sheng Dong Group (China) Catalytic Oxidizer: CH4Min Prototype CANMET Energy Centre (Canada) licensed by Sindicatum Carbon Capitol (SCC Americas)

12 Flow-reversal Oxidation Technology
Schematic of an Oxidizer Heat Exchange Medium Valve 2 Valve 1 Heat Exchanger Air & C02, H20 & Heat* Air & CH4 Heat Exchange Medium Valve 1 Valve 2 Valve #1 open = Valve #2 open = *Heat recovery piping not shown

MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER 2007: Oxidation & electricity generation, West Cliff Colliery, Australia 2007: Oxidation only – Abandoned Windsor Mine (CONSOL Energy, West Liberty, West Virginia) 2008: Oxidation & hot water, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 2010: Oxidation & hot water, Datong, Chongqing, China

14 WestVAMP West Cliff Ventilation Air Methane Project
Startup: April 2007 Capacity: 250,000 m3/hour (150,000 scfm) of mine exhaust air VAM concentration: 0.9 percent Generation unit: steam turbine Electricity output: 6 MW Four (4) VOCSIDIZER units (capturing 20% of VAM output) Ongoing project with two revenue sources - Electricity (over 80GWh generated) - Carbon credits from New South Wales trading scheme (over 500,000 traded)

15 WestVAMP

16 Zhengzhou, Henan, China First VAM project approved by UNFCCC under the CDM Mechanism Single VOCSIDIZER unit 0.3% - 0.7% CH4 concentration range

17 CONSOL Windsor Mine Demonstration
Using diluted, drained CMM to simulate VAM Single MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER unit Operated unattended with a VAM concentration of 0.6 percent Project partly funded by USEPA & USDOE Goals were to verify: - Ability to maintain VAM oxidation - System safety - Operability and maintenance with field conditions - Capacity: 30,000 scfm of simulated VAM

18 CONSOL Windsor Mine Demonstration

19 Biothermica – VAMOX™ Jim Walter Resources Brookwood, Alabama, USA
Typical VAMOX™ System Jim Walter Resources Brookwood, Alabama, USA Active Mine No. 7 2008: MSHA approval received 27,000 carbon credits in first year of operation Listed with the Climate Action Reserve (CAR)

20 Jim Walters Resources VAM Demonstration
Single Biothermica VAMOX unit Capacity: 30,000 cfm VAM concentration: 0.9 percent Greenhouse gas emission mitigation: >35,000 tonnes of CO2e per year Revenues: Carbon emission reductions Projected lifetime: > 4 years

21 CONSOL McElroy Mine VAM Project
Marshall County, West Virginia Verdeo Group is financing Registered with Climate Action Reserve Planned operation: mid-2011

22 Gas Turbines Lean fuel gas turbine Microturbines: Ingersol Rand Energy Systems FlexEnergy

23 CONSOL CMM-Fired Microturbine
In early 2007, CONSOL Energy – in partnership with Ingersoll Rand Energy Systems – successfully demonstrated electricity generation by a microturbine fueled by unprocessed CMM at Bailey mine in Pennsylvania. The unit underwent a one-year operational phase. The 70 kW microturbine expected to generate approximately 500 MWh of electricity while consuming approximately 8 MMCF of methane that would have otherwise been emitted to the atmosphere.

24 Hybrid Coal Mine Gas Technology (HCGT)
Combusts waste coal and VAM in a rotary kiln Generates thermal energy for electricity or steam Three 10 MW power plants were planned in India over the next five years EESTECH and Aryan Clean Coal Technologies joint venture

25 Technology Deployment Benefits
Ability to mitigate the largest source of coal mine emissions worldwide Capability to capture and beneficially use VAM’s dilute energy content Adds to energy security by beneficially using a currently wasted energy source Multiple vendors should lead to cost competition that will drive down project capital costs Attractive payback times (3 - 6 years) can be achieved at VAM concentrations > 0.6 percent and carbon emission reduction sale prices ≥ $10.00 per tonne CO2e

26 Technology Deployment Challenges
Newer technology; field experience limited to a few countries Most VAM concentrations exiting the mine are below 1 percent May need supplemental methane (drained gas) to raise VAM inlet concentrations to near 1 percent

27 Conclusions Flow-reversal oxidation of VAM with power generation is a proven technology Field installations of various technologies are multiplying Potential global market for VAM-to-power applications is large Emerging cost competitiveness should enhance project economics

28 USEPA Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP)
Voluntary climate change program since 1994 Promote the profitable recovery and use of coal mine methane (CMM) Support CMM project development International Methane to Markets Partnership

29 Methane to Markets Partnership
Encourages development of cost-effective methane recovery and use opportunities in coal mines landfills oil and gas systems and agriculture (manure waste management) Private companies, multilateral development banks and other relevant organizations participate by joining the Project Network – over 900 organizations now participating 34 Partner Governments Argentina Australia Brazil Bulgaria* Canada Chile China Colombia Dominican Republic European Comm. Ecuador Finland Georgia Germany India Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea Mexico Mongolia Nigeria Pakistan Peru Philippines Poland Russia Thailand Ukraine United Kingdom United States Vietnam The goals of the Partnership are being accomplished through collaboration between developed countries, developing countries, and countries with economies in transition. The Methane to Markets Partnership now has 21 partners. In total, 9 of 10 top methane emitting countries have joined the Partnership and together all of our M2M partners account for more than 60% of total global anthropogenic methane emissions Project Network members are private firms, development banks, NGOs or other governmental and non-governmental entities with an interest in methane recovery and use projects. Currently more than 650 organizations including: Asian Development Bank World Bank International Energy Agency United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Consultants and Project Developers M2M is built on successful model of domestic voluntary methane reduction programs Action oriented – focus on project development Participating countries and Project Network members work collaboratively to: Identify cost-effective opportunities for capturing methane emissions for energy production Identify and remove legal, regulatory, financial, and other barriers to project development Develop sector-specific action plans and a process for evaluating their implementation Conduct training, technical exchange, and demonstrations to support project development Developed countries commit to assist developing countries and countries in transition in undertaking the activities listed above 29

30 For more information, please contact us!
Jayne Somers USEPA Climate Change Division

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