4Council of Constantinople-381 Initiated a system of hierarchyBishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and JerusalemAll important areas to Church tradition.Bishop of Rome would be the overseer of all Bishops—Pope (father or papa, Greek)Why Rome?
5Church’s Influence on the Franks Clovis and the Merovingian line of kingsCharles Martel, Mayor who defeats the Moors at Tours, 732 and the Carolingian line of kingsPepin, son of Charles Martel makes a deal with the Pope of Rome to become kingAnointed king by the popeRemoves the Lombards from Italy“Donation of Pepin” –Later these areas became known as the Papal StatesCharlemagne
6Church in PoliticsThe Pope and Bishops were expected to keep leaders updated on rules and regulations that should be administered, which would uplift the church.The relationship between the church and the region’s leaders was symbiotic—a mutually beneficial relationship. The church had say in politics, leadership and were able to “advertise” to the people through the regional governments, and the leaders and kings garnered support from the church, which influenced the personal and spiritual lives of the people.
7Following the Death of Charlemagne Louis (the Pious)– Charlemagne’s only living son inherits the throne, but is weak.Quarreling among his sons will lead to war upon their father’s death.Eventually, Charlemagne’s empire is divided following the Treaty of VerdunLothar Lorraine, Burgundy, and ItalyLouis II the German GermanyCharles the Bald France
9EnglandGermanization of England: Angles and SaxonsEventually, they will create a system of 7 kingdoms (English)Vikings settle the East conquer all of EnglandEnglish regain control, but at the death of Edward II in 1066, Kings of Norway and Normandy invade1066 William the Conqueror takes EnglandFrench becomes the official language in England until the 100 Years War
10The Eastern Roman Empire becomes its own entity ByzantiumThe Eastern Roman Empire becomes its own entity
11Justinian and Theodora Reinforced the supremacy of an Imperial throneConquered Vandals in N. Africa (Tricameron) and Sicily-- Rome is reclaimed, then lost again to the LombardsBarbarians take over in the West--Eastern Roman empire will no longer attempt to reclaim lands of the old Roman Empire.last Latin Emperor--successors were Greeks, influenced by Greek language and customs
12Justinian and expansions during his reign Does the defeat of the Vandals create a power vacuum in North Africa?
13Byzantine Empire 814By the ninth century, the Empire had lost all of its territories but Asia Minor, Greece, the boot of Italy, and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily.
16After the death of Muhammad First Caliph: Abu Bakr- Father in law of Muhammad ( )Second Caliph: Umar( )Third Caliph: Uthman and dissensionGreat Expansion took place under the second and third CaliphsByzantium had lost many strongholds and the Sassanian Empire was destroyed.Enjoyed widespread support and unity
17The First and Second Civil Wars Question of legitimacyCan one rule the entirety of the Muslim world?Answer: No!!Result of the First and Second Civil WarsUmayyad Caliphate (Capitol Damascus), then Abbasid Caliphate (Capitol Baghdad)
18Baghdad Center of Learning Great libraries …until the Mongols Great thinkers from throughout the known world invited…along with new concepts/theories etc.Preservation of Classical Greek literature– allowed for the Renaissance
19Dar al Islam Definition: the home of Islam By the end of the 7th century the greatest trade centers in the world were located in Dar al Islam
20The disintegration of the Caliphate by the 10th Century Early Islam centered on the caliphateHowever, with no formal hierarchy directing conversion, a multitude of local Islamic communities emergedDisunity!!! (Becomes a mantra in the Mid East)Spanish Umayyad CaliphateEgyptian Fatimid CaliphateAbbasid Caliphate (Baghdad)Enter the Seljuk Turks (Barbarians Again!)
21Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century The CrusadesEleventh to the Fifteenth Century
22Viking InvasionsClick to return to previous slide
23The Environment Europe Feudalism Following the Death of Charlemagne Townspeople looked to landholding nobles for securityOf course, these nobles were not going to provide protection for freeFeudal structure developsFollowing the Death of CharlemagneSquabbling over land and wealth
24Manzikert 1071 Alp Arslan targets Anatolia (Present day Turkey) The Byzantines launch a strike and retake key cities…but a plot (led by the wife of the emperor) against the Emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes, proves his undoingAlp Arslan, then his son (after assassinating Dad) devastate the countryside killing or selling into slavery hundreds of thousands of Byzantine citizens.Asia Minor becomes, for centuries afterward, a wasteland
25Effects of ManzikertByzantine Military is devastated and will be unable to regain its past glory. Why?Military was made up of Anatolians (Armenians, Uzes and even Turks)Poor Leadership, emperors focus on politics and rhetoric and avoid military expansionAnatolia is open to invasion/destructionBeginning of the End of ConstantinopleAlexius Comnenus sends for help
26Clash of Religious Empires 10th C. Asia Minor and the Expansion of the Seljuk TurksLed by Alp ArslanConquered Asia Minor and stopped only 100 miles short of Constantinople, est. Nicaea as the capitolAlp Arslan
28Alexius IAfter two decades of fighting, Alexius is unable to regain land lost to the TurksAppeals for help, fears that the next target is ConstantinopleSends letter to Robert of Flanders asking for soldiers to ward off the Seljuk TurksLetterWhat kind of help does he seek?
29O illustrious count and great consoler of the faith, I am writing to inform Your Prudence that the very saintly empire of the Greek Christians is daily being persecuted by the Pechenegs and the Turks ... The blood of Christians flows in unheard-of scenes of carnage ... Therefore in the name of God and because of the true piety of the generality of Greek Christians, we implore you to bring to this city all the faithful soldiers of Christ ... Bring me aid and bring aid to the Greek Christians. By coming, you will find your reward in heaven and, if you do not come, God will condemn you.
32Effects of the Crusades Enhanced the prestige of the papacyWeakening of the Byzantine EmpireAnimosity between east and westWeakening of the Islamic WorldDon’t look now, but here come the Mongols!Don’t worry, the Ottomans will strengthen it againEstablished missionary movementsHastened the discovery of the New World