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Movement of Barbarians through Europe 4th-5th Century

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Presentation on theme: "Movement of Barbarians through Europe 4th-5th Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Chaos, Byzantine Security, Muslim Expansionism and the Viking Invasions.

2 Movement of Barbarians through Europe 4th-5th Century

3 Germanization of Europe

4 Council of Constantinople-381
Initiated a system of hierarchy Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem All important areas to Church tradition. Bishop of Rome would be the overseer of all Bishops—Pope (father or papa, Greek) Why Rome?

5 Church’s Influence on the Franks
Clovis and the Merovingian line of kings Charles Martel, Mayor who defeats the Moors at Tours, 732 and the Carolingian line of kings Pepin, son of Charles Martel makes a deal with the Pope of Rome to become king Anointed king by the pope Removes the Lombards from Italy “Donation of Pepin” –Later these areas became known as the Papal States Charlemagne

6 Church in Politics The Pope and Bishops were expected to keep leaders updated on rules and regulations that should be administered, which would uplift the church. The relationship between the church and the region’s leaders was symbiotic—a mutually beneficial relationship. The church had say in politics, leadership and were able to “advertise” to the people through the regional governments, and the leaders and kings garnered support from the church, which influenced the personal and spiritual lives of the people.

7 Following the Death of Charlemagne
Louis (the Pious)– Charlemagne’s only living son inherits the throne, but is weak. Quarreling among his sons will lead to war upon their father’s death. Eventually, Charlemagne’s empire is divided following the Treaty of Verdun Lothar Lorraine, Burgundy, and Italy Louis II the German Germany Charles the Bald  France

8 Division of Charlemagne’s Empire

9 England Germanization of England: Angles and SaxonsEventually, they will create a system of 7 kingdoms (English) Vikings settle the East  conquer all of England English regain control, but at the death of Edward II in 1066, Kings of Norway and Normandy invade 1066 William the Conqueror takes England French becomes the official language in England until the 100 Years War

10 The Eastern Roman Empire becomes its own entity
Byzantium The Eastern Roman Empire becomes its own entity

11 Justinian and Theodora
Reinforced the supremacy of an Imperial throne Conquered Vandals in N. Africa (Tricameron) and Sicily-- Rome is reclaimed, then lost again to the Lombards Barbarians take over in the West--Eastern Roman empire will no longer attempt to reclaim lands of the old Roman Empire. last Latin Emperor--successors were Greeks, influenced by Greek language and customs

12 Justinian and expansions during his reign
Does the defeat of the Vandals create a power vacuum in North Africa?

13 Byzantine Empire 814 By the ninth century, the Empire had lost all of its territories but Asia Minor, Greece, the boot of Italy, and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily.

14 Spread of Islam

15 Land acquired prior to Muhammad’s death

16 After the death of Muhammad
First Caliph: Abu Bakr- Father in law of Muhammad ( ) Second Caliph: Umar( ) Third Caliph: Uthman and dissension Great Expansion took place under the second and third Caliphs Byzantium had lost many strongholds and the Sassanian Empire was destroyed. Enjoyed widespread support and unity

17 The First and Second Civil Wars
Question of legitimacy Can one rule the entirety of the Muslim world? Answer: No!! Result of the First and Second Civil Wars Umayyad Caliphate (Capitol Damascus), then Abbasid Caliphate (Capitol Baghdad)

18 Baghdad Center of Learning Great libraries …until the Mongols
Great thinkers from throughout the known world invited…along with new concepts/theories etc. Preservation of Classical Greek literature– allowed for the Renaissance

19 Dar al Islam Definition: the home of Islam
By the end of the 7th century the greatest trade centers in the world were located in Dar al Islam

20 The disintegration of the Caliphate by the 10th Century
Early Islam centered on the caliphate However, with no formal hierarchy directing conversion, a multitude of local Islamic communities emerged Disunity!!! (Becomes a mantra in the Mid East) Spanish Umayyad Caliphate Egyptian Fatimid Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad) Enter the Seljuk Turks (Barbarians Again!)

21 Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century
The Crusades Eleventh to the Fifteenth Century

22 Viking Invasions Click to return to previous slide

23 The Environment Europe Feudalism Following the Death of Charlemagne
Townspeople looked to landholding nobles for security Of course, these nobles were not going to provide protection for free Feudal structure develops Following the Death of Charlemagne Squabbling over land and wealth

24 Manzikert 1071 Alp Arslan targets Anatolia (Present day Turkey)
The Byzantines launch a strike and retake key cities…but a plot (led by the wife of the emperor) against the Emperor, Romanus IV Diogenes, proves his undoing Alp Arslan, then his son (after assassinating Dad) devastate the countryside killing or selling into slavery hundreds of thousands of Byzantine citizens. Asia Minor becomes, for centuries afterward, a wasteland

25 Effects of Manzikert Byzantine Military is devastated and will be unable to regain its past glory. Why? Military was made up of Anatolians (Armenians, Uzes and even Turks) Poor Leadership, emperors focus on politics and rhetoric and avoid military expansion Anatolia is open to invasion/destruction Beginning of the End of Constantinople Alexius Comnenus sends for help

26 Clash of Religious Empires
10th C. Asia Minor and the Expansion of the Seljuk Turks Led by Alp Arslan Conquered Asia Minor and stopped only 100 miles short of Constantinople, est. Nicaea as the capitol Alp Arslan

27 Seljuk Turks 1100

28 Alexius I After two decades of fighting, Alexius is unable to regain land lost to the Turks Appeals for help, fears that the next target is Constantinople Sends letter to Robert of Flanders asking for soldiers to ward off the Seljuk Turks Letter What kind of help does he seek?

29 O illustrious count and great consoler of the faith, I am writing to inform Your Prudence that the very saintly empire of the Greek Christians is daily being persecuted by the Pechenegs and the Turks ... The blood of Christians flows in unheard-of scenes of carnage ... Therefore in the name of God and because of the true piety of the generality of Greek Christians, we implore you to bring to this city all the faithful soldiers of Christ ...   Bring me aid and bring aid to the Greek Christians. By coming, you will find your reward in heaven and, if you do not come, God will condemn you.


31 Crusader States

32 Effects of the Crusades
Enhanced the prestige of the papacy Weakening of the Byzantine Empire Animosity between east and west Weakening of the Islamic World Don’t look now, but here come the Mongols! Don’t worry, the Ottomans will strengthen it again Established missionary movements Hastened the discovery of the New World

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