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History of Catholicism in Rome: Medieval Ann T. Orlando 3 October 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Catholicism in Rome: Medieval Ann T. Orlando 3 October 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Catholicism in Rome: Medieval Ann T. Orlando 3 October 2005

2 Outline Review from last time Constantine Barbarian Invasions Tensions between Eastern and Western Christianity Importance of Rome in West

3 Christianity in Rome before Constantine Small, Greek speaking community Site of martyrdom of two great apostles: Peter and Paul c. 64 AD Bishop of Rome is preeminent among other bishops Christians worship in small house churches Martyrs are the great heroes of the period – Catacombs are places of burial – Tombs of martyrs become site of reverence and pilgrimage

4 Diocletian: Just before Constantine Roman Empire suffering internal and external strife at end of 3 rd C Diocletian divides Empire into 2 sections (East and West) with an Augustus and a Caesar – Constantine’s father Caesar in West To encourage unity Diocletian starts an Empire-wide persecution of Christians in 303 – This was the worst of all persecutions When Diocletian retires, war breaks out among successors

5 Map of Roman Empire: Diocletian’s Divisions

6 Constantine the Great (c. 280-337) Constantine’s father, Constantius, one of the Caesars When he dies Constantine declared Augusts by his army Pivotal battle was at Milvian Bridge in Rome – Constantine has a vision (dream) of a cross and sees “By this sign conquer” – Victory at Milvian bridge gives Constantine sole control of the Empire Considers Christianity true religion; but only baptized on his death bed /roman/constant.jpg

7 Constantine and Rome Constantine celebrates his victory by – Building an arch in forum near the Coliseum – By completing huge basilica in forum Leaves Rome to establish Constantinople as Eastern Capitol archcon10.jpg

8 Constantine and Church in Rome Before he leaves, he ‘gives’ most of Rome to the Pope – That is, he gives the land and buildings of his enemies to Pope – Most important of these is the Lateran Palace Church overnight becomes the most important landholder in Rome – Converts pagan temples into Christian churches – Builds new Churches, especially at site of martyrdoms with money from Constantine

9 Conversion of Temples: Pantheon Built c. 120 AD Renamed Mary of the Martyrs – But everyone still calls it the Pantheon ngs/Pantheon.html

10 Main Churches in Rome Built by Constantine on Site of martyrdoms – Church of St. Lawrence – St. Peter’s Basilica – St. Paul Outside Walls – St. John Lateran All rebuilt in later centuries – Baptistery of John Lateran remained nts/visarts/projects/kempe/pilgrimag e/chr_stjohn.htm

11 Former House Churches Become sites of major Churches Known as Titular Churches Example: San Clemente – Large churches built over site of house churches

12 Churches Celebrating Mary Starts with Council of Ephesus, 431, which formally declares Mary Theotokos, Mother of God Most famous and earliest in Rome is Mary Major, built in 432 rchive/cr-03/cr-01/mosaic03.jpg

13 After Constantine Little has changed in terms of pressures on Empire – Barbarians – Internal strife; civil war amongst Constantine’s sons Barbarians attack and sack Rome in 410 – Huge psychological impact throughout Empire

14 After Sack of Rome Waves of Barbarian invasions – Goths – Huns – Visigoths – Vandals Increasingly in the West only civil authority is in the Church – Bishops act as judges and magistrates – Only people who can read Western and Eastern Churches become increasingly separated, as political divisions grow – Takes centuries – Roman Empire exists in East with Constantinople as its capitol until 1453

15 Development of Church as Political Power Church did fill vacuum Church was a ‘democratic’ place – Place of meritocracy Pope was the most politically powerful person in Western Europe for about 1000 years – Pope crowns Charlemagne, 800 – Pope crowns Holy Roman Emperors

16 Driving Force: Monasteries The center of spirituality, education, culture in Western Europe during the ‘dark’ ages Started in East in 3 rd C, but adopted in West in 4thC Most important Western Monastic figure: St. Benedict of Nursia – Lived in Rome for a while – Moved to Monte Cassino just outside Rome – Benedicts Rule Many churches is Rome have cloisters and monasteries associated with them Many Popes, including Gregory Great (d. 604) were monks

17 Pope St. Gregory Great (540-604) Benedictine monk; wrote a life of St. Benedict – Lived in Monastery of St. Andrew (now known as St. Andrew and Gregory the Great) Gregorian Chant Clerical reforms Sent missionaries to England

18 Modern Map of Rome

19 November: Renaissance and Baroque Rome Great churches Great art Great city planning All in a time of great upheaval in the Church (the Reformation) Why I am skipping 800 years – Rome was the political capitol of Europe; Pope as king maker in Germany and France – But great intellectual and artistic developments moved to France (e.g., University of Paris; Romanesque and Gothic architecture) – Much of Medieval Rome destroyed in Baroque and Modern periods – Greatest Christian city in this period was Constantinople (New Rome

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