Presentation on theme: "Day One Invasion Who: Israel; Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria What: The Arab countries talked about the invasion, so it was not a surprise. Israel."— Presentation transcript:
Day One Invasion Who: Israel; Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria What: The Arab countries talked about the invasion, so it was not a surprise. Israel was ready, and defeated the 5 invaders. When: 1947 – 1948 Where: Israel was invaded from the South by Egypt, from the East by Jordan and Iraq, and from the North by Lebanon and Syria. Why: Arab countries rejected the agreement, and declared support for the Palestinian cause. They felt it was unfair for Palestinians to give up so much land to the smaller and mostly foreign group. How: Israel won in convincing fashion. Israel ended up with more land than the UN plan had given them, and the country of Palestine did not exist. The remaining Palestinian land was divided into two areas, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Jordan was forced to govern the West Bank (and Jerusalem), and Egypt was forced to govern Gaza. Israel had won it’s independence, but it had also created bitter enemies who would not let this defeat stand.
Day One Invasion Proposed Partition (UN 181)Armistice 1949
Suez War Who: Egypt; France, Great Britain, Israel What: Egypt had nationalized the canal and restricted ships going to or from Israel from traveling through the canal. The British especially were bitter about losing control of the canal, and were looking for an excuse to re-ente the area. When: 1956 Where: Sinai Peninsula, Suez canal region. Why: The British and the French wanted to increase their influence in the region, Israel wanted to eliminate the Egyptian offensive positions in the Sinai and Gaza. How: The invaders dominated, and the UN eventually stepped in placing peace-keeping troops around the canal and the Sinai. The US was furious at Britain and France for the aggression, and condemned the plan. British and French influence in the Middle East was weakened, and Nasser was looked at as a hero, even though his forces had lost the fighting, because the UN had sided with Egypt. Israel won the fighting, but suffered a blow in the international community.
Suez War Israeli troops routed Egyptian troops in the Sinai. One of Israel’s main objectives was ending the blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba.
The Six Day War Who: Israel; Egypt, Jordan, Syria What: Nasser had throw UN peace-keeping troops out of the Sinai. Nasser and other Arab leaders were continually talking about reversing the injustice of 1948. Nasser had again closed the canal and the Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping. War seemed inevitable. When: 1967 Where: Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, Jerusalem, Golan Heights Why: Nasser saw himself as the leader of the Arab world, but the Arab defeat by Israel in 1948 was a black cloud that hung over him, and all Arab leaders. How: Israel, knowing that war was inevitable, launched a surprise attack. They were wildly successful, routing the other countries in six days. Israel now occupied Gaza, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. How: By occupying the West Bank and Gaza, Israel inherited a new problem; governing the Palestinians. Always a hated enemy of the Palestinians, now they became an oppressive, occupying power. How: Israel also occupied the Golan Heights, which had previously been a part of Syria. Prior to, and during the fighting, Syria had used this high ground for rocket attacks on towns in Northern Israel. Israel took this ground to increase it’s own security. This occupation is still a sore spot in Israeli / Syrian relations. How: Israel also occupied Jerusalem, and quickly moved to make Jerusalem it’s capitol. Palestinian leaders today say when there is peace, Jerusalem must be their capitol city, something Israeli leaders obviously will not agree to.
Six Day War Golan Heights (taken from Syria West Bank and Jerusalem (taken from Jordan Gaza and the Sinai (taken from Egypt)
Yom Kippur War Who: Israel; Egypt and Syria What: Anwar Sadat succeeded Nasser, and immediately talked of regaining the land lost in 1967. Syria had also been complaining about the loss of the Golan Heights. UN Resolution 242 condemned Israel’s taking of land in 1967, and recommended a return to the pre-1967 borders; something Israel refused to do. When: 1973 Where: Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights Why: This was a last-ditch effort by the Egyptians and the Syrians to save face and reverse the defeats at the hands of Israel. Using the Israeli model of a surprise attack (like 1967) they hoped to gain a quick advantage and either win the fighting or be in position to negotiate an advantageous settlement. How: Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated surprise attack on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. After some early successes, Israel eventually turned the tide and defeated Egypt and Syria again. How: This defeat effectively ends the dream of Palestinian statehood through military actions taken by the neighboring Arab countries. Palestinians now look internally for future statehood, and the PLO is formed. In 1976 Palestine (under the leadership of the PLO) is added to the Arab League, even though they do not have a state.
Yom Kippur War Small gains were made by the Egyptians The Syrians only lost more land and prestige
Lebanon War Who: Lebanon and Israel What: Lebanon’s government collapsed in 1975, and a three-party civil war was fought in Lebanon until 1990. More than 300,000 Palestinian refugees lived in Southern Lebanon by 1975. The PLO had a huge influence on the civil war, and on Lebanese affairs in general. The PLO frequently launched attacks on Israeli towns and military units from Southern Lebanon. When: 1982 – 1985 (complete withdrawal in 2000) Where: Southern Lebanon Why: Israel could not turn to the Lebanese Government to secure the border, so it invaded to secure the border on its terms. Israel believed it was better for its army to fight the PLO on PLO turf rather than continue to let the PLO attack Israeli soil. How: Israel was condemned by many countries for the invasion, but considered the action a success in weakening the PLO and its offensive capabilities. The resentment in Lebanon was huge, and it gave rise to the influence of Hezbollah, and Iranian/Syrian group whose chief goal is the destruction of Israel.
Lebanon War Israel’s occupation extended to the edge of Beirut, the capitol city.
Hezbollah War Who: Hezbollah (in Lebanon) and Israel What: Hezbollah filled the power void in Southern Lebanon after the PLO was defeated in 1985. Hezbollah routinely carried out operations against IDF units in Northern Israel and the Golan Heights. When: 2006 Where: Southern Lebanon, Northern Israel Why: Hezbollah wanted to capture Israeli soldiers to it could exchange them for Hezbollah / Lebanese prisoners held in Israel. Hezbollah ambushed an IDF patrol and took 2 wounded soldiers prisoner. Israel retaliated by invading Lebanon in an effort to recover the captured soldiers. How: Hezbollah fired rockets on Israeli cities as far South as Haifa, and struck Israeli warships off the coast of Lebanon. Israel responded with airstrikes at Hezbollah targets and strongholds throughout Lebanon. How: Hezbollah effectively fought the vaunted IDF to a draw. Israel ultimately withdrew from Lebanon. However, the government of Lebanon took an aggressive stand against Hezbollah, and has begun to disarm and remove Hezbollah fighters in Lebanon.
Hezbollah War As you can see, Israel’s retaliation was far reaching, and some say disproportionate to the actions of Hezbollah