Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Thomas Jefferson was: –Southern Aristocrat from Virginia –Well-spoken public speaker –Plantation owner, Farmer, slave owner."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Thomas Jefferson was: –Southern Aristocrat from Virginia –Well-spoken public speaker –Plantation owner, Farmer, slave owner –Believed slavery was a great moral evil, but did not see an easy way to abolish the institution supported by the southern plantation system. –Loved the French and supported the French Revolution. –Architect (built Monticello), philosopher, scientist, and an inventor. –Spoke 5 languages. He is an “everyman”, but what kind of President is that going to make him? It all comes down to the economics, social change, government and politics during his term of office.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power First Inauguration in the New Capital of the United States – –It has been 10 years since Alexander Hamilton struck a deal w/ Jefferson and Madison to move capital to a location in VA off the Potomac River from Philadelphia, in exchange for their support to allow the national government to assume the debt of the states. –New capital was planned out by Benjamin Banneker, free black mathematician and scientist –The architect for the city was Major Pierre-Charles L’Enfant. Capitol building and President’s “mansion” were the only buildings in the city that will become known as Washington, in the territory that will become the District of Comlumbia –Jefferson will be the first president to be inaugurated in the new capitol in the late winter of 1801. (Adams and his family live in the house in late 1799). Jefferson’s Inaugural Address – Tried to play down the differences between himself and his opponents.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Jefferson’s Inaugural Address – Tried to play down the differences between himself and his opponents. Promised: 1.“ Equal and exact justice to all men” of every shade of political and religious opinion. 2.Friendships w/ all nations but no alliances. 3.Respect for the rights of the states while still preserving the “constitutional vigor" of the national government. 4.Encouragement of agriculture and commerce. 5.Freedom of speech. 6.Economy and honesty in the management of our country’s finances. Not as much of a threat to the Federalists, but more of a recruitment speech for those Federalists fed up w/ their leadership and were more moderate in their view.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Revolution of 1800: –Moved US away from militarism and monarchy –Did not want to see an industrialized nation of cities, but a community of farmers who governed themselves in local assemblies. –Washington D.C. should confine itself to dealings with foreign policy. –Reduce Army and Navy to apply those funds to paying off the public debt. –Cabinet included James Madison (State), and Albert Gallatin (Treasury). The most ablest statesman and financier Jefferson could find. –Gallatin insisted on a strict economy for the gov’t – the modern budget – w/ specific sums for each item of national expense. –Alien and Sedition Act were not renewed, but not repealed. The Barbary pirates – Arab rulers of the Barbary States on the north coast of Africa (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli) practiced seizing ships and taking ships and crews hostage for ransom, cheap substitute for war.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Jefferson wanted to put an end to this practice. Goodbye, Peace! Goodbye, to paying down the national debt! Sent several naval squadrons to the Mediterranean Sea to punish the pirates. Costly venture – Cong. Passed 2.5% tax on imports as a “Mediterranean Fund” Ends justifies the means – successful campaign – peace w/ Tripoli in 1/1805. Other states continued the practice at a discounted ransom rate, and even began to become a problem after the War of 1812. In 1815, Stephen Decatur, was sent back to the Mediterranean Sea to deal with the problem again. Forced Algiers to sign a treat renouncing raids and ransom. Tunis and Tripoli followed. 1804 and 1815 our navy’s international service led the way to the freedom of the seas.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Jefferson’s Political Doctrines: –Strict interpretation of the Constitution –Severe limits in spending public money Doctrine will be tested: Napoleon, the Mississippi River, and the Louisiana Territory Mississippi River – Main artery through America (30-40 rivers, between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains, are tributaries of the Mississippi River) –“Father of Waters” runs from Minnesota all the way down into the Gulf of Mexico. –Most of those who settled the territory west of the Appalachians used the tributaries to reach the Mississippi to get goods to the Port of New Orleans and out to sea. Concern over the fact Spain controlled the land on both sides of the mouth of the Mississippi River.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Napoleon wanted to create and New French Regime in America, in the land west of the Mississippi that were secretly obtained from Spain by Napoleon. –Land was called Louisiana –Now that Napoleon controlled Louisiana, The US was even more concerned. –Napoleon needed money to complete conquest of Europe. Made the mouth of the MS a tollgate in New Orleans. Jeopardized livelihoods of those that needed the freedom to carry goods on the MS and its tributaries to the Gulf of Mexico out to the oversea trade routes. –Jefferson sent James Monroe a to join Robert Livingston to buy from France New Orleans and all the lands on the east bank of the river (West Florida) between $2-$10 million.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Napoleon’s plans for a New France, depended first on taking back Haiti from the slaves that took over power around the same time of the French Revolution. –Not going to be easy – Commander-in-Chief Pierre Dominique Toussaint (too – san) L’Ouverture (lou – vear – tour) ruled all of Haiti. –Napoleon needed Haiti to for his future plans for Louisiana. Tried to conquer Toussaint and put slavery back in Haiti. –Plan to launch second step into Louisiana failed b/c French Generals LeClerc and Rochambeau were defeated by the Haitians and disease. –This attempt was beginning to become to expensive for Napoleon. (Can’t fight a two front war too far from home!) –Napoleon could not control Haiti, trying to hold on to Europe, wants to hold on to Louisiana, and needs money to do all.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power –SELL, SELL, SELL – Not only New Orleans, but for all of Louisiana. –Monroe and Livingston were not ready for this reply for their offer to buy New Orleans. Could not wait for approval from Jefferson and Congress, and needed to make a decision ASAP. –Did not have the power or authority to make that decision. –Decision was to offer $15 mil to Napoleon for all of Louisiana. Napoleon accepted and ran off maniacally to conquer the rest of Europe (just kidding) –Was this a good decision made by Monroe and Livingston. Decision did not represent the people. Overstepped the powers of the Constitution – power not given to them by the Constitution. Would they get a parade or were they in the doghouse?
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Monroe and Livingston has put Jefferson in a tight spot: –The Constitution does not say who has the power to buy land. Powers must be authorized by the Constitution. –Left out on purpose to prevent US from playing the game of empire. –Jefferson went against beliefs and supported decision made by Monroe and Livingston, but still asked the Senate to vote on approval. Congress agreed and approved the purchase in October 1803. Highway to the Mississippi is open and would stay open. Louisiana Purchase: –Doubled the size of the United States, and made it possible for Americans to move even farther West. –Made it possible to carry the Add-a-State Plan westward to the Pacific –Build a continent-wide Empire for Liberty.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power –No longer an Atlantic-seacoast nation. –No longer ruled by the original 13 states. –13 states will be formed from the LP, in some of the richest land in America. –Freed American from the boundary of the MS river and gave us expandable boundaries for the Empire of Liberty. –Two-ocean nation no longer imprisoned by the British Empire. Lewis and Clark expedition – Jefferson commissioned Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark to explore 1700 miles of land and river from the mouth of the Missouri River (Hartford, IL) on the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. –Left in the Spring of 1804, hired Toussaint Charbonneau and his Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, as guides westward and liaisons with the Shoshone, who helped them on their journey. –Summer of 1805, crossed the Great Divide, Rocky Mountains.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power –Entered the Columbia River in November 1805 and reached the Pacific Ocean on December 3, 1805. Significance of the Expedition: –Gave credence to 1792 claim to the Oregon Territory. –Painted a picture of the land west of the Mississippi River. Lessened fear of the unknown. Federalist Protest – Federalist saw the Louisiana Purchase as a threat to their party. Felt Westerners would support Jeffersonian Republicans in the next election, b/c the Purchase relieved the economic fears of the western settlers. Would take control of government Membership in Federalist Party would be limited to eastern coast. Thoughts of breaking up union and starting a northern confederacy. Promised Aaron Burr the Presidency of the New Confederacy if he would bring in New York. Hamilton opposed him and joined the Republican to keep Burr from joining the confederacy.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power –Burr lost to Hamilton, badly. Burr was bitter, Hamilton opposed Burr in 1800 Presidential election. Challenged Hamilton to a duel on the banks of the Hudson River at Weehawken on July 11, 1804. –Burr shot Hamilton dead. –Burr was on the lamb. The secessionist plans of the New England States was also dead. The Burr Conspiracy – Political career was dead in the east, Aaron Burr planned to make a new career out west. But what were his plans? –Seize New Orleans? –Conquer Northern Mexico and carve an empire out of Spanish Territory? –Plant a colony of the United States, west of the Mississippi? –He did try to secure an aid from both the British and the Spanish. –Betrayed Gen. James Wilkinson, Burr was arrested and charged w/ treason and tried in Arlington,VA in 1807. –Burr was acquitted/ b/c Chief Justice John Marshall defined treason in a way that Burr could not be found guilty.
Chapter 7: Jefferson in Power Constitutional definition of treason is levying war against the US. –Burr was guilty of that, but Marshall insisted that Burr had to have made “open” war against the US in order to be found –Was Marshall’s interpretation motivated by his dislike for Jefferson? Maybe, but the Burr decision was good for the nation in that it made it difficult for the ruling political party to muzzle the their political opponents by charging them with treason.