3Ancient HistoryPrehistoric tools along the Nile date from 65,000 BC (Early Khartoum)Region of NubiaNorthern Sudan and Southern EgyptAlong the banks of the NileHomeland of Africa's earliest black culture.Trading route between Mediterranean & tropical Africa.
4Nubia Nubian Civilization dates from 3,100 BC. Artifacts Monuments Written accounts from Egypt and RomeLand of the bowmenArchaeology (much of Nubian land was submerged under the Aswan Dam and other large projects 1960s- emergency excavation.
5Key Periods in Sudan's History 1750 BC rise of the Kerma from scattered kingdoms – one of the oldest urban areas in Africa.1500 BC conquered by Eygptians1000 BC Egyptian empire shattered & rise of Kush Empire200 BC Meroe capitol – Kushites turned towards south rather than north to Eygpt.
6Sudan's History 500 AD Christians in Sudan Mid 14th Century became Islamic and adopted arabic lanuage.1821 Mohamed Ali Pasha, Ottoman Turkish ruler of Egypt, conquered Sudan1881 Mahdi overthrew colonial Egyptian goverment1898 British Lord Kitchener overthrew MahdiAnglo-Egyptian colonial rule1956 Independence
7Kerma Ta-Sety (“the Land of the Archers’ Bow”) most ancient urban civilization outside Egypthub of trading network -sub-Saharan Africa, Red Sea and MediterraneanGold, Ivory and ebony
9Grave studies: Kerma sites round or oval pits4 to 5 ft deepfood offerings & belongingsbodies always flexed, on R sides,hands in front of faces, feet to the W, heads to the E, looking N.Source: : C.Bonnet, Tomb of archer, Kerma 2200 BC
10BurialsExcavations in Kerma reveal the beginnings of a custom of human sacrifice (in some cases several 100s).The belief in an afterlife in which servants would be necessary for the noble & wealthy.
11Kerma 1700-1550 BC Inlay from funeral furniture Source Boston Museum of Fine Arts
12Artifacts: PotteryKerma potteryTulip beakerSource: Digital Egypt
13Jebel BarkalHistorical city of Nepata – southern most limit of Egyptian Empire ( BC).Later center of independent kingdom of Kush (8thC BC) Source: Timothy Kendall
14Jebel Barkal: World Heritage Site Ancients and Egyptians were intrigued by the unusual rock formations.Egptians thought it was the birthplace & home of their supreme diety, Amun – built a large temple here.Nubians' primary religious and coronation site in the eighth century B.C.At least 3 palaces, 17 temples and 9 pyramids
15World Heritage Site: 1905 Breasted Expedition: Temple of Amun
17Nubian Pyramid Photo: Ben Lory, DISCOVER Vol. 26 No Nubian Pyramid Photo: Ben Lory, DISCOVER Vol. 26 No. 12 | December 2005 | AnthropologyOne of 9 at Jebel Barkal.45ft highIst Century B.C.Nubians made 180 pyramids (2 x number Egyptians constructed)
18Gold artifacts Many of the artifacts were looted from the site Hinged bracelet of gold with enamel decoration showing a seated figure of the goddess Hathor and geometrical pattern; two hinges; loop on each end.
19Nubian Royal Cemetary at Meroe (250 BC -350 AD) source: Dr Nubian Royal Cemetary at Meroe (250 BC -350 AD) source: Dr. Stuart Tyson Smith (UCSB).
20Meroe Artifacts Nubians moved their capitol south to Meroe. Many treasures like this Museum of Fine Arts, BostonAmulet of feline- headed goddessNubian, Napatan Period, 435–431 B.C.
21Pharaonic tradition - stelae & pyramids centralized political system - employed artisans' skills, large work force.Good irrigation - high population densityIst C BC - hieroglyphs gave way to Meroitic script that adapted the Egyptian writing system to an indigenous, Nubian-related language.Succession - matriarchal royal family member deemed most worthy often became king. The queen mother's role was crucial . The crown appears to have passed from brother to brother (or sister) and only when no siblings remained from father to son.
22Christians In Sudan 500 AD to 1400AD 1960s excavation turned into a sensation at Faras- Nubian centerFound cathedral with over 120 wall- paintings, 8th to 12th centuryInfluence: Byzantine art, Egyptian Coptic art. & Palestinian
26Five pillars of IslamShahada or profession of faith is the affirmation "There is no god but God (Allah) and Muhammad is his prophet."Salat: prayer at five specified times of the day.Sawm: fasting. RamadamZakat: almsgiving (helping poor)Haii: pilgrimage to Mecca