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LITERARY ANALYSIS: ESSAY FORMAT ROUGH OUTLINE: I.INTRODUCTION II.BODY A. Topic/Book 1 B. Topic/Book 2 C. Topic 3 III.CONCLUSION.

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Presentation on theme: "LITERARY ANALYSIS: ESSAY FORMAT ROUGH OUTLINE: I.INTRODUCTION II.BODY A. Topic/Book 1 B. Topic/Book 2 C. Topic 3 III.CONCLUSION."— Presentation transcript:

1 LITERARY ANALYSIS: ESSAY FORMAT ROUGH OUTLINE: I.INTRODUCTION II.BODY A. Topic/Book 1 B. Topic/Book 2 C. Topic 3 III.CONCLUSION

2 Introduction: introduces text(s), author(s), purpose, and thesis statement. Though the fictional, post-apocalyptic world Suzanne Collins creates in The Hunger Games, seems unrecognizable as the former United States, there are certain issues remaining that echo those of the nation that once stood in the place of Panem. The same problems characters face in Panem are seen in the actual United States throughout Anne Moody’s autobiographical account of growing up during the Civil Rights Era, Coming of Age in Mississippi. Both texts introduce a female child who must overcome much adversity in order to survive in a society that treats her harshly and unfairly. In both The Hunger Games and Coming of Age in Mississippi, young protagonists face issues of loss and oppression which eventually lead them to rebel. Though Katniss and Anne come from two different worlds, their plights reflect the nature of humanity to seek freedom from all who would deny it.

3 Body: the “meat” of your essay 3 separate paragraphs Order should follow the organizational plan set up in your introduction. –The body paragraphs should appear in the same order as the items you write about in your introduction or in your thesis statement.

4 SAMPLE THESIS: In both The Hunger Games and Coming of Age in Mississippi, young protagonists face issues of loss and oppression which eventually lead them to rebel. –The body paragraphs, therefore, should be in the same order. BODY ¶ 1—“Loss” BODY ¶ 2—“Oppression” BODY ¶ 3—“Rebellion” If the items are mentioned again in the conclusion, they should also follow the same order. In addition, since THG is mentioned first, that book should always be addressed first in each paragraph.

5 TOPIC SENTENCES The first sentence of each body ¶ should reveal the topic of that ¶. SAMPLE TOPIC SENTENCES: BODY ¶ 1: In each book, the main character experiences much loss during her childhood. BODY ¶ 2: Oppression becomes a motivating factor for both girls as they accept as their responsibility the act of seeking freedom. BODY ¶ 3: Whenever humans are oppressed, their natural reaction is to rebel against the oppressing force.

6 STYLE ISSUES: INFORMAL LANGUAGE Do not use contractions. –Instead of “don’t,” write out “do not.” Do not use slang, idioms (“sayings”), clichés, etc.: “treated like dirt,” “scared to death,” “bottom of the barrel” Avoid vague words: things, stuff, big/huge… –Be more specific: issues, situations, important, etc.

7 Avoid overused “empty” words: –a lot, very, really, so (adverb form). –If you are using these words, there is a more advanced vocabulary word out there that will say the same thing: Try using your thesaurus. EX: very big … enormous so tired … exhausted really serious… grave A lot … numerous

8 THEIR, THERE, and THEY’RE THEIR—a pronoun that shows ownership to a group of people or things. –Their house is for sale. –The puppies had all their toys dragged out in the yard. THERE—an adverb that tells you where. –TIP: The word “here” is in the word “there.” They both tell you where –There is a great need for more teachers at the high school. –Your purse is sitting over there. THEY’RE—a contraction that stands for “they are.” –TIP: Remember, you should not use contractions in your essays. –They’re planning on renting a limo for prom. –I hope they’re aware of how much that costs.

9 AFFECT vs. EFFECT AFFECT—a verb –The bill will affect millions of Americans. EFFECT—a noun –The effects of the bill could be devastating.

10 TO and TOO TO—used as a preposition or part of an infinitive to show a relationship between words. –There is no way we can get to the school on time. (preposition) –I am not able to drive after ten o’clock at night. (infinitive) TOO—an adverb that tells to what extent (how much) or replaces the word “also.” –There are too many jelly beans for me to count. –Those books are too heavy for him to carry by himself. –Jess would like to come to the movies with us, too.

11 NO CONJUNCTIONS AT BEGINNING OF A SENTENCE Do not use coordinating conjunctions to begin a sentence: –And –But –Or / Nor –So

12 POINT OF VIEW INCORRECT 1 st person INCORRECT 2 nd person CORRECT 3 rd person I, me, my, mine we, us our, ours You Your Yours Yourself You’re he, she, it him, her his, hers, its they, them their, theirs one, one’s

13 SAMPLE: “The summer reading we were required to read had many issues that involved questionable morality in the youth of the time.” CORRECTION: “The Hunger Games and Hitler Youth had many issues that involved questionable morality in the youth of the time.”

14 SAMPLE: –When you have the ability to take action, you must assume the responsibility to make a difference. CORRECTION: –When people have the ability to take action, they must assume the responsibility to make a difference.

15 I THINK… There is never any reason to say, “I think.” “I believe,” “I feel,” “In my opinion,” etc… Your name is on the paper, so I know these are your thoughts, your beliefs, your feelings, your opinions. State your opinions as if they are facts. SAMPLE: –In my opinion, Katniss is a much stronger competitor than Peeta. CORRECTION: –Katniss is a much stronger competitor than Peeta.

16 PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT (PRO-ANT AGR.) All pronouns and antecedents must agree in number. SAMPLE: Each of the girls has to take responsibility for their own survival. (sing) (pl) CORRECTIONS: The girls have to take responsibility for their own survival. (pl) (pl) Each of the girls has to take responsibility for her own survival. (sing) (sing)

17 PRO-ANT AMBIGUITY Make sure you have clearly established what your pronoun is referring to. SAMPLE: –The first theme that arises in both books is authority. In The Hunger Games, the authority is the Capitol, while in Hitler Youth, that authority is Adolf Hitler. Both stories go through how they feel about the authority figure in their life. In Hitler Youth, it starts out as a good thing. CORRECTION: –The first theme that arises in both books is authority. In The Hunger Games, the authority is the Capitol, while in Hitler Youth, that authority is Adolf Hitler. Both stories go through how the characters feel about the authority figure in their lives. The Hitler Youth organization starts out as a good thing.

18 SAMPLE: –In The Hunger Games, Katniss would not have to leave her family and risk her life for the entertainment of the Capitol if they were not so blind to the fact that they were doing such a horrible job running a country. In this sample, the antecedent for “they” is not clearly established. Is it Katniss & family or the Capitol? CORRECTION –In The Hunger Games, Katniss would not have to leave her family and risk her life for the entertainment of the Capitol if the government were not so blind to the fact that they were doing such a horrible job running a country.

19 PARALLEL STRUCTURE *The concept that items in a series must be balanced or matched. *Choosing the same grammatical structure for sentence parts that are compared or contrasted.

20 SAMPLE: –Katniss must act as the mother, the father, and be a good big sister to Prim all at once. CORRECTION: –Katniss must act as the mother, the father, and a big sister to Prim all at once. SAMPLE: –Anne works several different jobs, from sweeping floors to babysitter. CORRECTION: –Anne works several different jobs, from sweeping floors to babysitting. SAMPLE: –Katniss is very quick thinking and has a good protective instinct. CORRECTION: –Katniss is a quick thinker with a good protective instinct.

21 USING ADVANCED VOCABULARY AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE –It is great to use advanced vocabulary words, but ONLY if you know what the words mean and how to use them correctly in context. –It is better to use less advanced words and use them correctly than to confuse yourself and your reader. –If you are CONFIDENT about the word’s meaning and usage, by all means, use it; otherwise, do not! –Also, do not try to use complex sentence structure that ends up not making sense. –You want to be clear first, advanced second.

22 SAMPLE: –Young adults should be ecstatic at Katniss’s age, and it should not be a considerable loss on risking it for an outdated tradition such as The Games. (The word choices are advanced and vivid, but the word order and incorrect usage make the sentence suffer.) CORRECTION: –Someone as young as Katniss should be happy and secure, but instead she is angry and frightened because she must risk her life for the outdated tradition of The Games.

23 COMMA-SPLICE –Two independent clauses joined by only a comma. –To correct: Make two separate sentences. Add a semicolon. Add a conjunction (and comma if necessary).

24 SAMPLE: –Katniss has no support system at home, her mother is not mentally stable. CORRECTIONS: –Katniss has no support system at home. Her mother is not mentally stable. –Katniss has no support system at home; her mother is not mentally stable. –Katniss has no support system at home because her mother is not mentally stable.

25 SAMPLE: –In The Hunger Games, Collins describes a country that stands where North America once stood, it is not the same as it once was. CORRECTIONS: –In The Hunger Games, Collins describes a country that stands where North America once stood. It is not the same as it once was. –In The Hunger Games, Collins describes a country that stands where North America once stood; it is not the same as it once was. –In The Hunger Games, Collins describes a country that stands where North America once stood, but it is not the same as it once was. FOR ADVANCED WRITERS, IT IS BEST TO CREATE A COMPOUND OR COMPLEX SENTENCE.

26 RUN-ON SENTENCE Two or more independent clauses linked together with a conjunction but no comma, or neither the conjunction nor the comma. To correct: Make two separate sentences. Add a semicolon without the conjunction Add a comma before the conjunction. SAMPLE: –The Capitol is able to take complete control of the people but there are some who resist their authority. CORRECTION: –The Capitol is able to take complete control of the people, but there are some who resist their authority. SAMPLE: –The Capitol is able to take complete control of the people there are some who resist their authority. CORRECTION: –The Capitol is able to take complete control of the people; however, there are some who resist their authority.

27 UNNECESSARY COMMAS Do NOT use a comma before a conjunction if the conjunction is not followed by an independent clause. SAMPLE: –The characters in both books know something wrong is happening, but do nothing to stop it. (The words in red do not constitute an independent clause.) CORRECTIONS: –The characters in both books know something wrong is happening but do nothing to stop it. (Remove comma.) –The characters in both books know something wrong is happening, but they do nothing to stop it. (Add a subject to make an independent clause.)

28 Titles, etc. Italicize book titles, movie titles, television shows, play titles. (You only underline these when handwriting.) –Coming of Age in Mississippi Use “quotation marks” around short story and poem titles. –“The Bet” Write out #s that have fewer than three words when written down. –One hundred vs. 132

29 Verb Tense When writing about literature, writers typically use present tense. Even if the text is historical, we write in “historical present.” What is happening within the pages is always happening, so it is appropriate to use present tense. There are times when past tense is appropriate, but predominantly, present tense is preferred. More importantly, you want to remain CONSISTENT with your verb tense. Do not shift tenses from one sentence to another (or within a sentence).

30 SAMPLE: –Katniss tends to Peeta’s wounds and awaits a sign from Haymitch. She kept Peeta alive and safe until relief arrived. CORRECTION: –Katniss tends to Peeta’s wounds and awaits a sign from Haymitch. She keeps Peeta alive and safe until relief arrives.

31 SAMPLE: –Anne had a difficult time accepting Raymond’s role as her stepfather; he has no real respect for Toosweet or her children. CORRECTION: –Anne has a difficult time accepting Raymond’s role as her stepfather; he has no real respect for Toosweet or her children.

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