Presentation on theme: "For every joy there is a price to be paid People bring about their own undoing through their tongues Know the world in yourself. Never look for yourself."— Presentation transcript:
For every joy there is a price to be paid People bring about their own undoing through their tongues Know the world in yourself. Never look for yourself in the world, for this would be to project your illusion
Pre-Dynastic Period ~4000-3100 B.C. Country Exists as Nomes (Nomarch) or City-States Government Independent, yet cooperative economically Split into Upper & Lower Lasts as N (lower) & S (upper) until end of period
Two Kingdoms Lower Egypt consisted of Nile River Delta Symbol is Cobra (Red) Upper Egypt consisted of higher ground of Nile to Nubia Symbol is Falcon (White)
Not important as cultural development Mediterranean strain of Caucasian Race Short, Dark, Long Headed People Straight Black Hair Deep set Eyes Ties w/ N&S Africa and Asia Language contains Semitic elements
Cultural Development Tools – Flint, Copper, Gold Pottery Glazed and Buffed Excellent Irrigation, reclamation of swamp land Weaving of woolen cloth Laws based on custom, binding for all System of writing 1 st Solar Calendar 12 months of 30 days + 5 feast days Began 4200 BC
To water the crops, the Egyptians made a counterweight called the Shadoof. The Shadoof used the weight of the water vs. the weight of rocks to swing the water in mass quantities.
The evolution of writing : Top, some signs dated several generations before the 1st Dynasty Center, the name of a city at the start of the 1st Dynasty; Bottom, a text from a wooden panel from the tomb of Hesyre
Egyptian Dynasties 3 Major Great Periods During Egyptian Rule 30 dynasties ruled Egypt from 3100 BC to 525 BC Broken Down into 6 sub eras after the Pre-Dynastic Era
Old Kingdom 3100 – 2200 BC 3100 BC – Narmer unites Upper & Lower Egypt Built new Capital City – Memphis Central Location for Upper & Lower 1 st – 6 th Dynasties
Old Kingdom’s capitol – Memphis built by Narmer at the junction of upper and lower Egypt! Middle and New Kingdom’s capitol - Thebes
Old Kingdom Form of Govt – Theocracy Absolution of King Named Pharaoh (Great or Royal House) No Separation of Church & State Developed Bureaucracy –Govt officials headed by Vizier (prime minister) –Treasurer, Architect, Public Works Adm, Chief Justice, 42 Monarchs
Old Kingdom Position of Pharaoh – Hereditary High Quality Judicial System Government –Peace, Non-Aggression (unique among ancient nations) –No standing Army, since existence was out of cooperative need –Only Local Militia Content to let other nations alone, since Isolated in location
Pharaoh’s (Old Kingdom) Zoser (3 rd Dynasty) 1 st to build monumental structure to house remains. With architect (Imhotep) engineered Step Pyramid at Sakkara Stepped construction with facade of limestone 200,000 tons of stone used
Agents of the Gods During the Old Kingdom era, kings of Egypt began to emphasize their divine associations and their people believed them to be manifestations of the god Horus. After the time of Khufu, kings were also proclaimed to be sons of the great sun god Re. After his death, the king became associated with Osiris, father of Horus and god of the underworld. The king's sacred powers were passed on to the new ruler - usually his son.
1 Pyramid of Khufu 2 Pyramid of Khafre 3 Pyramid of Menkaure 4 Mrtuary temples 5 Causeways 6 Valley temples 7 Subsidiary pyramids 8 Boat pits 9 Cemeteries (mastabas) 10 Great Sphinx 11 Sphinx temple
Egyptian Proverbs of the Day It is no use whatever preaching wisdom to men; you must inject it into their blood. The seed cannot sprout upwards without simultaneously sending roots into the ground. Organization is impossible unless those who know the laws of harmony lay the foundation.
Pharaoh’s Khafre (4 th Dynasty) Addition to Pyramids at Gizeh Construction of Enormous Sphinx Facial features inscribed on face
Unfortunately, the pyramids became obvious targets for tomb robbers. The Giza Pyramids were plundered long ago of the bodies and anything entombed with them, despite the almost superhuman efforts of the Egyptians to protect the remains of their kings. Man fears Time, yet Time fears the Pyramids Arab proverb
Pyramids – Pyramids - Pyramids Zoser – 2630 BC – 204 ft High – stepped at Saqqara Snefru – 2600 BC – 306 ft High – covered stepped; Bent Pyramid Dahshur 344 ft High; Northern Stone Pyramid 341 ft High Khufuh - 2550 BC 481 ft High at Giza Khafre – 2520 BC 471 ft High at Giza Mencare – 2490 BC 310 ft High at Giza Pepi II – 2250 BC 172 ft High at Saqqara
Astronaut photograph ISS007-E-12915.was taken August 18, 2003, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 800 mm lens and provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet.ISS007-E-12915International Space Station Program
Feudal Kingdom (2200-2050 BC ) Also called Intermediate Period Period of Anarchy Invasion of Negroid & Asian Tribes –No Standing Army becoming liability
Power shifts to Monarchs, No Central Power Drain of Treasury –Building Pyramids, Structures Famine and Social Unrest Broke into 2 separate Nations Once More Feudal Kingdom (2200-2050 BC )
FORGET THE BUD, CRACK open a Tut. Thanks to British archeologists and a Scottish brewery, you may soon be able to party like a pharaoh. Ancient Egyptians have long been known as prodigious beer drinkers, sipping brews both sociably and as medicine. Beer-making equipment has even been found in the tombs of Egyptian royalty-including King Tut's. Now, Cambridge University scientists studying hieroglyphics and wall paintings at the buried Clty of Armana believe they have deciphered the recipe for the Egyptian elixir, a bread-based ale flavored with anything from honey to flowers. The Scottish & Newcastle brewery hopes to tap kegs of Tut's suds by next year. Says exec Jim Merrington: "The product promises to be pretty palatable-and strong."
The Egyptians made the wheat into bread and into soup and porridge, and they also added hops to make the barley into beer. In fact, some people think the real reason that the Egyptians first began growing grain was to make beer. This is an Egyptian model of beer jars (from the Louvre), which the Egyptians made to put in your grave when you died so you would have beer in the next world.beernext world
A bottle of its Tutankhamen Ale sold for ($78). In 1996, British beer maker Scottish and Newcastle sold a limited edition, 1,000- bottle batch of beer brewed according to an ancient Egyptian recipe. The beer is based on barley, but does not use hops, which give modern beer its bitter taste, Mr Ishii said. Drinkers will have to stick to normal ales. Old Kingdom is not for sale However, don't expect the brew to be drawn from a pump in your local. A Japanese beer maker has taken a 4,400-year-old recipe from Egyptian hieroglyphics and produced what it claims is a brew fit for the Pharaohs. The Kirin Brewery Co. has called the concoction Old Kingdom Beer. It has no froth, is the color of dark tea and carries an alcohol content of 10% - about double most contemporary beers. Sakuji Yoshimura, an Egyptologist at Waseda University in Tokyo, helped transcribe the recipe from Egyptian wall paintings. Kirin spokesman Takaomi Ishii said: ''It has a taste very different from today's beer. It tastes a little like white wine.''
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/ Dr. Zahi Hawass