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© 2008 Eaton Corporation. All rights reserved. This is a photographic template – your photograph should fit precisely within this rectangle. Alternative.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2008 Eaton Corporation. All rights reserved. This is a photographic template – your photograph should fit precisely within this rectangle. Alternative."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2008 Eaton Corporation. All rights reserved. This is a photographic template – your photograph should fit precisely within this rectangle. Alternative DC Storage Examples Beyond the Lead Acid Battery

2 2 2 Double Conversion UPS System Power Quality Applications Typical UPS system block diagram ATS Rectifier AC/DC Genset AC Inverter DC/AC Utility AC Long-term AC alternate source Critical AC output Automatic Transfer Switch 540 VDC 480 VAC DC Energy Storage

3 3 3 Alternatives to Standard Storage

4 4 4  Generator  Preferred method to provide long ride- through (5-48 hours)  Maintenance is required  Noise and exhaust are concerns  Be sure to size properly with UPS  Vendor should have UPS interface experience

5 5 5 Alternatives to Standard Storage  Batteries  For now, batteries are the least expensive mid- term solution  They can also be the weakest link  Service life is always an issue  Hazardous materials disposal is a challenge  Frequent testing and constant monitoring is a requirement  Size and weight are inconvenient in a datacenter

6 6 6 Flywheel DC Energy Storage Can be deployed as the primary DC source or in parallel with traditional batteries in a Battery Hardening configuration. It is different from typical chemical batteries in that frequent cycles do not reduce its life Produces high power output for short durations (20 – 90 seconds)

7 7 7 UPS TOPOLOGIES

8 8 8 TV Broadcast Green initiative Improved reliability Do not like batteries Floor space / footprint Selection Criteria 1 x 160KVA/144kW UPS 1 VDC XE flywheel No Batteries

9 9 9 Decatur Memorial Hospital IL - IT Application 1 x 160KVA/144kW UPS 1 VDC XE flywheel No Batteries Selection Criteria Green initiative Improved reliability Do not like batteries Floor space / footprint

10 10 2 x 750KVA/675kW UPS 8 VDC XE flywheels No Batteries Selection Criteria Small footprint Reduced Maintenance Cost University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute - Gainesville

11 11 Gundersen Lutheran Hospital - IT Application The hospital, based in La Crosse, Wis., is halfway toward its 2009 goal, which amounts to $409,000 in annualized savings Strives for 100% Renewable Energy 1 x 550KVA/495kW UPS 2 +1 future VDC XE flywheels No Batteries Selection Criteria  Small footprint  Green / Sustainability  Reliability  Reduced Maintenance Cost

12 12 University of Massachusetts Medical School - Data Center 2 x 825KVA / 750kW UPS 8 VDC XE VYCON Flywheels No Batteries Selection Criteria Small footprint Green / Sustainability Reduced Maintenance Cost Reliability

13 13 Delta Dental Insurance - Data Center Battery Hardening Selection Criteria Floor space / footprint Redundancy Extend battery life Improved system reliability Ride through to Generator 2 x 500kVA / 450kW UPS 4 VDC XE VYCON Flywheels Batteries Dual Bus

14 14 825kVA / 750kW UPS 5 VDC XE Flywheels Outdoor Enclosure Bremerton Naval - Modular Solution for IT Selection Criteria Floor space / footprint HVAC requirement reduced Reduced maintenance Improved system reliability Ride through to Generator

15 15 The Principles of Kinetic Energy KE ~ m (rpm) ² (for rotational motion) Low Speed More mass means more energy Double mass = double energy “Low-speed” 1800 to 8000RPM High Speed More energy by higher rpm Double rpm = quadruple energy “High-speed” 36000 to 55000RPM All Flywheels are operated well below their design limitations

16 16 First Generation Design - Low speed (8,000 RPM) High maintenance with down time required Lengthy commissioning and start up procedure Large flywheel mass (800 LBS) High standby power losses Bearings Flywheel Technology Evolution

17 17 No permanent magnets enables high tip-speed and high output power Flywheel, motor- generator rotor Air-gap armature Magnetic bearing integrated into field circuit Field replaceable ball-bearing cartridge Field coil Smooth back-iron, no slots and low loss 250kW Motor/Generator/Flywheel Active Power FLYWHEEL

18 18 Second Generation Design Ultra high speed - 52,000RPM Liquid cooled - circulation pump Mid range power density Small composite flywheel mass (60 Lbs) No recovery from drop out event Down time to service internal vacuum / filter Bi Annual service with shut down year 1 Flywheel Technology Evolution

19 19 Third Generation Design – VYCON High speed - 36000 RPM Air cooled Small steel alloy flywheel mass (120lbs) Annual service requirement 15 mins. no down time High power density Full recovery from drop out event Flywheel Technology Evolution

20 20 High Speed, Steel Flywheel Module Permanent Magnet Motor-Generator Magnetic Levitation

21 21 VDC – Simplified One Line To UPS Battery Input IGBT Power Converter Magnetic Levitation Controller Control Panel Flywheel Module Soft Start DC Monitoring Motor Generator Controls Power Conversion Module Controller

22 22 98% of disturbances < 10 sec. 10 Coup de fouet = Whiplash Float Voltage Grid Disturbance 0 20 Time (Seconds) Battery Hardening Battery “Whiplash” Prevented Flywheel provides voltage support eliminating battery whiplash Increasing battery life, Improving UPS reliability & Reducing service UPS DC Bus Voltage (dc) w/ flywheel Gen Nearly 99% of all voltage sags and outages last less than 8 seconds

23 23 Battery Hardening

24 24 Alternatives to Standard Storage  Supercapacitors, Turbines and Fuel Cells  All these promising technologies offer continuous power  But some can’t handle large step loads and many are rather inefficient  Typically too expensive vs. batteries (for now!)  Supercaps (some) utilize KOH electrolyte with same disadvantages as batteries  Acidic hazards  Disposal concerns  Gassing on overcharge

25 25 Comparison with other storage devices(1) item Energy density (Wh/kg) Battery ( Lead-Acid ) Power density (W/kg) Discharge rate Cycle Life 10 ~ 40 50 ~ 130 10min ~ 10h 200 ~ 2,000 Shelf Life Conventional Capacitor <0.1 10,000 ~ 100,000 ~ 0.1sec >500,000 5 ~ 10year3 ~ 5year EDLC 100 ~ 5,000 0.1sec ~ 1min >500,000 0.2 ~ 10 10 ~ 15year Over discharge ○ × ○ Environment Battery ( Li-ion ) 40 ~ 80 100 ~ 300 10min ~ 10h ~ 10,000 5 ~ 10year × ○ × ○ △

26 26 Lead-Acid BatteryConventional CapacitorEDLC Cupbucketdrum Best option for fire fighting Water in the cup can be applied at one time but volume is not sufficient enough for fire fighting Sufficient amount of water in the drum but can not be applied at one time for fire fighting Not applicable EDLC is best storage device for charge and discharge of large amount of electricity in a short period of time ! Comparison with other storage devices(2)

27 27 Dynamic Voltage Compensator (system) Rated Output10,000kVA Dip comp. time1sec Rated Voltage3φ 6,600V OperationOn-line method Switch over No interruption ( Less than 2msec ) StorageEDLC Efficiencyover 99% System ( W : 28m-H:2.6m-D:2.3m ) Module 600S1-70C-11P 292×600×395H EDLC Panel Back up Load Inverter EDLC commercial power high speed switch Sag compensation mode

28 28 Application for Electric railway (system) CAPAPOST ( W : 4.1m-H:3.1m-D:5.0m ) EDLC Bank(600S1-70C×36P×8S ) Regeneration & Peak cut

29 29 Power System Stabilizer (system) Stabilize the sharp fluctuations by PSS AC6600V 、 100kVA EDLC AC/DC transformer Input Peak cut & Regeneration Load fluctuation engine generator + EDLC

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