Presentation on theme: "New English Language Development and Common Core State Standards Institute Practices that Support ELLs in Rich CCSS Aligned Instruction June 27, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
New English Language Development and Common Core State Standards Institute Practices that Support ELLs in Rich CCSS Aligned Instruction June 27, 2013
Introductions Lydia Stack ESL / EFL Educational Consultant Understanding Language Stanford University
Goal Prepare every English learner for college and career success!
Objectives Examine the critical role language plays in the new Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards for English Language Learners (ELLs) Identify specific teaching strategies that support ELLs access and success with authentic Common Core aligned complex texts. Explore ways to engage English Learners in high levels of discourse in Language Arts classrooms
Major Shifts in New Standards ELAMathScience Regular practice with complex text and its vocabulary Building knowledge through content-rich informational texts Emphasis on reading, writing, and speaking that is grounded in evidence from the text Provide opportunities for student access to the different mathematical (discourse) practices described in the CCSS Support mathematical discussions and use a variety of participation structures Focus on students’ mathematical reasoning, NOT on students’ flawed or developing language Developing and using models Constructing explanations (for science) and developing solutions (for engineering) Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Old Paradigm ContentLanguage Mostly vocabulary, Grammar
New Paradigm Extended Discourse Discussing Complex Text Explanation Argumentation Purpose of Text Analyzing Text Structures Complex Sentences Targeted Vocabulary in Context LanguageContent
Realizing Opportunities for English Learners (Bunch, Kibler, Pimentel) ELLs should not be removed from the challenges set out in the standards. ELLs can meaningfully participate in instruction through “imperfect” language. Instruction must build on -- and build – students’ existing resources (L1, background knowledge, interests and motivations), precisely in order to expand them.
Realizing Opportunities for English Learners (Bunch, Kibler, Pimentel) Instruction must immerse students in meaning-making language and literacy activities with both micro- and macro- scaffolding (Schleppegrell & O’Hallaron, 2011).
Theoretical and Pedagogical Shifts From a conception of Language acquisition as an individual process Language as structures or functions To an Understanding of Language acquisition as a social process of apprenticeship that takes place in social contexts Language as action and use, subsuming structure and function (Ellis & Larsen Freeman, 2010; van Lier & Walqui,2012)
Theoretical and Pedagogical Shifts From a conception of Language acquisition as implying the linear and progressive building on forms and structures, or functions, aimed at accuracy, fluency, and complexity Use of simple and/or simplified texts To an Understanding of Language acquisition as non-linear and complex developmental process aimed at communication and comprehension Use of complex, amplified texts for all students
Theoretical and Pedagogical Shifts From a conception of Use of activities that pre-teach the content, or simply “help students get through texts” To an Understanding of Use of activities that scaffold students’ development and their autonomy, so that the knowledge gained is generative in nature and applicable to novel learning contexts
Persuasion Across Time and Space: Analyzing and Producing Complex Texts “ A Unit Developed for the Understanding Language Initiative by WestEd’s Teacher Professional Development Program Unit Authors: Aida Walqui, Nanette Koelsch, and Mary Schmida In Collaboration with Understanding Language’s English Language Arts Working Group: George C. Bunch (Chair), Martha Inez Castellón, Susan Pimentel, Lydia Stack, and Aida Walqui
Persuasion Unit Illustrates how ELA CCSSs can be used to deepen and accelerate the instruction of ELLs in middle schools. Is based on the notion that ELLs develop conceptual and academic understandings as well as the linguistic resources to express them simultaneously, through participation in rigorous activity that is well scaffolded (Walqui & van Lier, 2010)
CA ELD Standards Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways 1. Exchanging information/ideas Students will contribute to class, group, and partner discussions by following turn ‐ taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas.
CA ELD Standards 3. Supporting opinions and persuading others Negotiate with or persuade others in conversations (e.g., to provide counter ‐ arguments) using learned phrases (I agree with X, but.. ), and open responses.
CA ELD Standards 7. Evaluating language choices Students will explain how well writers and speakers use specific language to present ideas of support arguments and provide detailed evidence (e.g., showing the clarity of the phrasing used to present an argument) when provided with moderate support.
UNIT Persuasion Across Time and Space: Analyzing and Producing Persuasive Texts LESSON 1 Advertising in the Contemporary World: An Introduction to Persuasive Texts Can you live with dirty water? LESSON 2 Persuasion in Historical Context: The Gettysburg Address Gettysburg Address LESSON 3 Ethos, Logos, & Pathos in Civil Rights Movement Speeches MLK “I have a dream” Robert Kennedy “On the Death of Martin Luther King” George Wallace “The Civil Rights Movement: Fraud, Sham, and Hoax “ LESSON 4 Persuasion as Text: Organizational, Grammatical, and Lexical Moves in Barbara Jordan’s All Together Now Barbara Jordan “All Together Now” LESSON 5 Putting it Together: Analyzing and Producing Persuasive Text The Girl who Silenced the World for Five Minutes
Lesson 2: Persuasion in Historical Context: The Gettysburg Address Demonstrates the tripartite nature of lessons: Preparing Learners, Interacting with Texts, Extending Understanding. Build schema about the time, place, and the political context of Lincoln’s famous speech through the reading of informational text. Discover how cohesive and coherence ties work together to create meaning.
Preparing and Scaffolding Learning Era Envelope (Background readings and photos) Jigsaw and “focus chart” for building essential background knowledge (“sourcing”) Clarifying Bookmark (to support students in reading the background material and to develop metacognitive skills for reading) Viewing Photos for discussion Wordle with roundtable discussion on images that the words provoke
Era Envelopes - Scaffolding Three different ways to scaffold the Era Envelopes Option 1: Groups work independently – no scaffolding Option 2: Groups jigsaw the readings – moderate scaffolding Option 3: The Teacher works through the readings with students – maximum scaffolding
Era Envelope: Discussion After completing the Jigsaw Reading and their section of the handout on page 8, students return to their base groups Students take turns sharing responses text- by-text, adding to or revising responses as needed. Students discuss readings using the Clarifying Bookmark.
Photo Task Each student picks a photo from the envelope. Students take turns talking about their photo. The group picks one photo and completes HO #7. Together they write a caption for the photo and post it on the wall
Era Envelope and Photograph Response Minimal and moderate scaffolding: Groups review photos and select one for further analysis Maximal scaffolding: Teacher selects and guides response to one photo
Word Clouds: Wordle Students work with a partner to: Pick two or three words Discuss images or ideas that come to mind when they think of the words Round Robin Each student in the group shares at least one word and image/idea associated with it. They do not discuss or comment until everyone has shared.
Interacting with the Text Close reading with guided questions Reading in Four Voices Literary Device Matrix (in dyads) Wordle, revisited – What images do you associate with the words now – Look for variations of similar words (e.g. dedicate and dedicates) Dedicate matrix
The Gettysburg Address – Multiple Readings Listen to a version of the Gettysburg Address Read the Gettysburg Address in Four Voices Close reading with guided questions Partner reading of the text for Literary Devices Group Analysis - In our own words
Interacting with the Text Para. 1: Lincoln refers to “our fathers” creating a new nation. Who is he referring to here? Para. 2: When Lincoln refers to a “nation so conceived and dedicated,” to which phrase in Paragraph One is he referring? How do you know? What does Lincoln mean when he states that the living must “be dedicated to the unfinished work” of the dead soldiers? Which lines in the speech tell the living what their “unfinished work” is?
Literary Device Matrix Example: New nation any nationthis nation Work with a partner to find examples of repetition in the Gettysburg Address. The first example has been done for you.
Extending Understanding Vocabulary review jigsaw In our own words
Vocabulary Review Jigsaw Form groups of four Label a piece of paper “The Gettysburg Address” and number 1to 12 on the paper Each person at the table gets a card Person with card A calls out a number, teammates find that number on their paper. “A” reads the sentence with that number Next “B” reads the sentence with that number Then “C” reads the sentence with that number Finally “D” reads the definition and team members complete the word.
Vocabulary Review Jigsaw
In Our Own Words Assign partners or small groups one sentence from The Gettysburg Address to translate into modern English. Completed sentences are transferred to poster paper. Speech is reassembled. Teacher leads discussion of consistency in tone and voice Students revise sentences and repost
What about Beginning English Learners? This unit is designed for English Learners in ELA classes who are at the intermediate or above proficiency levels. Beginners should be placed in appropriate ESL classes. One size does not fit all! ELPD standards apply in these cases. Expectations should be based on those standards for each student’s correct PROFICIENCY level. English Learners can be given the same assignments, however product expectations should be based on the proficiency level of each student. Scaffolding is key to student success.
Discussion Questions What shifts did you see evident in the unit? What would be necessary for teachers to move in this direction for English Learners? How can initiatives like Understanding Language be of help?
References Ellis, N. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (Eds.) (2009). Language as a complex adaptive system. Language Learning, 59, Supplement 1. van Lier, L., & Walqui, A. (2012, January). How teachers and educators can most usefully and deliberately consider language. Paper presented at the Understanding Language Conference, Stanford, CA. Walqui, A. & van Lier, L. (2010). Scaffolding the academic success of adolescent English Learners. A pedagogy of promise. San Francisco: WestEd. Walqui, A., & Heritage, M. (2012, January). Instruction for diverse groups of English language learners. Paper presented at the Understanding Language Conference, Stanford, CA.
Questions? Thanks you for your participation Lydia Stack Understanding Language Website Ell.stanford.edu