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David Evans http://www.cs.virginia.edu/evans CS150: Computer Science University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus

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2 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Equivalent Computers zzzzzzz 1 Start HALT ), X, L 2: look for ( #, 1, - ), #, R (, #, L (, X, R #, 0, - Finite State Machine... Turing Machine term = variable | term term | (term) | variable. term y. M v. (M [y v]) where v does not occur in M. ( x. M)N M [ x N ] Lambda Calculus

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3 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus What is Calculus? In High School: d/dx x n = nx n-1 [Power Rule] d/dx (f + g) = d/dx f + d/dx g [Sum Rule] Calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables...

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4 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Real Definition A calculus is just a bunch of rules for manipulating symbols. People can give meaning to those symbols, but that’s not part of the calculus. Differential calculus is a bunch of rules for manipulating symbols. There is an interpretation of those symbols corresponds with physics, slopes, etc.

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5 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Lambda Calculus Rules for manipulating strings of symbols in the language: term = variable | term term | (term) | variable. term Humans can give meaning to those symbols in a way that corresponds to computations.

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6 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Why? Once we have precise and formal rules for manipulating symbols, we can use it to reason with. Since we can interpret the symbols as representing computations, we can use it to reason about programs.

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7 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Evaluation Rules -reduction(renaming) y. M v. (M [y v]) where v does not occur in M. -reduction(substitution) ( x. M)N M [ x N ] Note the syntax is different from Scheme: ( x.M)N ((lambda (x) M) N)

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8 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus - Reduction (the source of all computation) ( x. M)N M [ x N ] Replace all x ’s in M witn N

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9 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Evaluating Lambda Expressions redex: Term of the form ( x. M)N Something that can be - reduced An expression is in normal form if it contains no redexes (redices). To evaluate a lambda expression, keep doing reductions until you get to normal form.

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10 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Some Simple Functions I x.x C xy.yx Abbreviation for x.( y. yx) CII = ( x.( y. yx)) ( x.x) ( x.x) ( y. y ( x.x)) ( x.x) x.x ( x.x) x.x = I

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11 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Example f. (( x. f (xx)) ( x. f (xx)))

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12 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Possible Answer ( f. (( x. f (xx)) ( x. f (xx)))) ( z.z) ( x. ( z.z)(xx)) ( x. ( z.z)(xx)) ( z.z) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( z.z) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ...

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13 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Alternate Answer ( f. (( x. f (xx)) ( x. f (xx)))) ( z.z) ( x. ( z.z)(xx)) ( x. ( z.z)(xx)) ( x. xx) ( x.( z.z)(xx)) ( x. xx) ( x.xx) ...

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14 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Be Very Afraid! Some -calculus terms can be -reduced forever! The order in which you choose to do the reductions might change the result!

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15 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Take on Faith (until CS655) All ways of choosing reductions that reduce a lambda expression to normal form will produce the same normal form (but some might never produce a normal form). If we always apply the outermost lambda first, we will find the normal form if there is one. –This is normal order reduction – corresponds to normal order (lazy) evaluation

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16 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Universal Language Is Lambda Calculus a universal language? –Can we compute any computable algorithm using Lambda Calculus? To prove it isn’t: –Find some Turing Machine that cannot be simulated with Lambda Calculus To prove it is: –Show you can simulate every Turing Machine using Lambda Calculus

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17 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Simulating Every Turing Machine A Universal Turing Machine can simulate every Turing Machine So, to show Lambda Calculus can simulate every Turing Machine, all we need to do is show it can simulate a Universal Turing Machine

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18 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Simulating Computation zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 1 Start HALT ), X, L 2: look for ( #, 1, - ), #, R (, #, L (, X, R #, 0, - Finite State Machine Lambda expression corresponds to a computation: input on the tape is transformed into a lambda expression Normal form is that value of that computation: output is the normal form How do we simulate the FSM?

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19 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Simulating Computation zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 1 Start HALT ), X, L 2: look for ( #, 1, - ), #, R (, #, L (, X, R #, 0, - Finite State Machine Read/Write Infinite Tape Mutable Lists Finite State Machine Numbers Processing Way to make decisions (if) Way to keep going

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20 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Making “Primitives” from Only Glue ( )

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21 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus In search of the truth? What does true mean? True is something that when used as the first operand of if, makes the value of the if the value of its second operand: if T M N M

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22 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Don’t search for T, search for if T x ( y. x) xy. x F x ( y. y)) if pca. pca

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23 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Finding the Truth T x. ( y. x) F x. ( y. y) if p. ( c. ( a. pca))) if T M N (( pca. pca) ( xy. x)) M N ( ca. ( x.( y. x)) ca)) M N ( x.( y. x)) M N ( y. M )) N M Is the if necessary?

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24 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus and and or? and x ( y. if x y F)) or x ( y. if x T y))

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25 Lecture 39: Lambda Calculus Lambda Calculus is a Universal Computer? zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 1 Start HALT ), X, L 2: look for ( #, 1, - ), #, R (, #, L (, X, R #, 0, - Finite State Machine Read/Write Infinite Tape Mutable Lists Finite State Machine Numbers Processing Way to make decisions (if) Way to keep going...to be continued Wednesday...

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