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Bananas and Plantains Family: Musaceae Genus: Musa Species: M. acuminata M. balbisiana.

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Presentation on theme: "Bananas and Plantains Family: Musaceae Genus: Musa Species: M. acuminata M. balbisiana."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bananas and Plantains Family: Musaceae Genus: Musa Species: M. acuminata M. balbisiana

2 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Genus Musa Section Eumusa Genus Musa Section Eumusa n Major species of economic importance –Musa acuminata (A genome) –Musa balbisiana (B genome) n Ploidy levels of commercial bananas –Diploid, AA and BB –Triploid, AAA, AAB, ABB –Tetraploid, AAAA, AABB, ABBB n Major evolutionary events –Probably millennia ago

3 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Types of Bananas n Banana –Desert banana, fresh consumption –AAA n Plantain –Cooking, Meal, Vegetable banana –Plátano, banano macho –AAB or ABB

4 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana Origin and Domestication AA AAA AAB ABB AABB AAAB ABBB ABB AAB AB Industry developed in Late 19th Century AAB AAA AA Before 200 AD Reached Europe by 1516

5 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Adaptation: Hot Humid Tropics n Temperature –Frost free –Mean temperature of 27 C (80 F) –Minimum winter temp of 15.5 C (60 F) n Moisture –Rain, 100 mm (4.0”) per month n Soil –Good drainage is needed –Slightly acid, pH 5.5 to 6.5

6 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University January 15.5 C isotherm June 15.5 C isotherm 1,270 mm isohyets Banana Cultivation and Climate Most Banana/Plantain Production within Region with Winter Temperate Greater than 15.5 C (60 F) and Rainfall greater than 1,270 mm (50”) (Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

7 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana Cultivation and Climate Bananas Grown for Local Consumption January 15.5 C isotherm June 15.5 C isotherm 1,270 mm isohyets B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BB B B B B (Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

8 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana Cultivation and Climate Bananas Grown for Export = T January 15.5 C isotherm June 15.5 C isotherm 1,270 mm isohyets B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BB B B B B T T T T T T T T T TT T T T T T T (Figure 6.1 from Simmonds, 1966)

9 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Weather Problems n Wind –15-20 mph - leaf damage, twisting, breakage –40 mph - considerable damage –60 mph - complete destruction n Why –Pseudostem not as strong as woody stem –Large leaves that catch wind –Shallow root system

10 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University World Production (1,000s mt) FAOSTAT database,

11 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University World Production (%) FAOSTAT database,

12 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University World Production Leading Producing Countries FAOSTAT database,

13 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University World Production World Production FAOSTAT database, n Production –Bananas, 72 million MT (56% Asia) –Plantains, 25 million MT (89% Africa) n Staple food for 70 million Africans –90% grown on small farms and consumed locally –10% exported from plantations n Latin America and Caribbean region

14 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University World Yields (mt/ha) FAOSTAT database,

15 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Plant Structure Monocot n Perennial herb –All leaves/inflorescence origin from under ground corm n Spreads via rhizomes n Plants “walk” –Largest plant without woody trunk n Pseudostem, leaf bases –Fruits once

16 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana Varieties n Gros Michel (Big Mike) –Leading cv for 100 years –Good production, cycle months –Tall plants (4-8 m), wind damage –Good post harvest qualities n Ripened uniformly n Resistant to bruising and discoloration –Shipped as bunches –Susceptible to Panama disease n Replaced by Cavendish - resistant to Panama disease

17 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana Varieties n Cavendish –Currently the leading cv for export –Heavy production, cycle 11 months –Smaller plant (2-3 m) - less wind damage –Marginal post harvest qualities n Does not ripen uniformly - use special chambers n Susceptible to bruising and discoloration –Shipped packed in boxes –Resistant to Panama disease

18 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Many Locally Important Varieties n Active breeding in Africa, South America, and Asia

19 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Flower Structure n Three types of flowers on inflorescence –Female flowers - develop into fruit –Hermaphroditic flowers –Male flowers n Fruit is a berry

20 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana flower Female Male

21 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Banana flower Male Female Three months from flowering to harvest

22 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Botanically the Banana is a Berry One pistil One or many seed Seed Remnants Other Berries Tomato Kiwi Grape Persimmon

23 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Production Cycle n Propagation –Vegetative –Rhizomes that are 6-8” diameter –Planted within hours of digging –Special fields for production of rhizomes for new orchards n Nematode problems –Hot water treatment (65°C) –Chemical dips

24 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Planting n Density –2.9 m (8.5’) square –1,812 pl/ha (725 pl/ac) n Size of export plantation –Need to supply 36,000 mt/year –Yield 40 mt/ha -> 1,000 ha –Supply 1,000 mt/ship every 10 days –Four years to attain commercial production

25 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Production n Banana plants –Take 8-9 months to flower n leaves n Six leaves needed for good production –Bunch take 3 months to develop –Fruiting cycle for Dwarf Cavendish is 11 months n Banana plants “walk”

26 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Training and Plant Selection n Banana plants “walk” –Select and train sucker for next crop to not interfere with growing bunch –When harvest fruit the sucker should be 2 m (5-6’) –Eliminate suckers that are n Poorly positioned n Too small n Unhealthy

27 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Production Fruiting Stem 1st Replacement Daughter 2nd Replacement Grand daughter Fruiting Mat

28 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Panama Disease n Fusarium oxysporum –Caused the demise of Gros Michel –Plantains are generally resistant n Control – Resistant varieties –New strain of the pathogen in Asia overcomes Cavendish resistance gene n Need to develop a wider range of varieties for the export market

29 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Panama Disease

30 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Black Sigatoka Banana Leaf Spot n Mycosphaerella - Cercospora –Native to Southeast Asia n History –Early 1960s - Pacific and Asia –Early 1970s - Latin America –Late 1970s - Gabon in Africa - spread through Africa n Symptoms –Small translucent pale yellow streaks –Necrotic lesions (light gray w/ yellow halo) –Lesions coalesce and destroy leaf

31 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Black Sigatoka Banana Leaf Spot n Yield Losses - by losing leaf area –This is generally not a problem in mixed –50% yield loss –Also cause premature ripening in harvested fruit n Control –Mixed plantings n Generally not a serious problem –Monoculture n Fungicides (Manzate) n Resistant varieties

32 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Bagging of the Fruit n Weekly inspection –Last true hand is 4” long –Remove terminal end of bunch –Mark with ribbon - colors change with the week –Cover with perforated polyethylene bag n Why –Protection n Pests n Damage from leaves n Dust and dirt –Advance ripening

33 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Fertility n Forty tons of bananas per hectare –80 kg N =80 kg N –20 kg P 2 O 5 =9 kg P –240 kg K 2 O=200 kg K

34 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Supporting the Crop n 52% of plant weight is the raceme –Prop with poles –Guide lines to base of adjacent plant –Leaf pruning can reduce problems with wind damage

35 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Harvest n Crew harvests at 3-4 day intervals –Look for colored ribbons which indicate age of bunch n Minimum size –5 hands –Pick green, with certain size n Banana bunch weighs lbs –Two man operation –Hung on hook on cable system

36 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University n Cable system runs from banana field to the packing house

37 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Fruit Packing and Grading n Separate into hands n Wash to prevent staining n Pack in boxes

38 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University n Pack in boxes –Only pack unblemished fruit Fruit Packing and Grading

39 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Post Harvest n Storage temperature – F –Below 56 F may cause chilling injury n Bananas are ripened for marketing –58-64 F –Ethylene treatment

40 Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University Nutritional Value n 100 gm edible pulp –85 calories, mostly carbohydrates –Vitamin, A, C, B 1, B 2, niacin –Minerals, very high in K n Reduce risk of high blood pressure and strokes

41 Any Questions?


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