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Analysis of Light in August by William Faulkner created and presented by Patricia Geary Schoene all rights reserved Notes taken from a variety of sources.

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1 Analysis of Light in August by William Faulkner created and presented by Patricia Geary Schoene all rights reserved Notes taken from a variety of sources including Lawrence Thompson, Norman Holmes Pierson, Charles R. Baker

2 Faulkner’s characters “All the lonely people, where do they all come from? All the lonely people where do they all belong?” Beatles “All the lonely people, where do they all come from? All the lonely people where do they all belong?” Beatles All the main characters are isolated outcasts or strangers to the community of Jefferson All the main characters are isolated outcasts or strangers to the community of Jefferson

3 Lena Grove A simple and naïve country girl – innocent – believes in love A simple and naïve country girl – innocent – believes in love “Thou still unravished bride of quietness/ Thou foster-child of silence and slow time” Ode on a Grecian Urn “Thou still unravished bride of quietness/ Thou foster-child of silence and slow time” Ode on a Grecian Urn “she advanced… like something moving forever and without progress across an urn” p. 7 “she advanced… like something moving forever and without progress across an urn” p. 7

4 Lena Grove Antithesis of Joe Christmas Not burdened by past Antithesis of Joe Christmas Not burdened by past A foil to Joe Christmas - orphaned A foil to Joe Christmas - orphaned Not burdened by religiously imposed guilt – believes the lord will see to it that the family will be together Not burdened by religiously imposed guilt – believes the lord will see to it that the family will be together Inspires others to help her Inspires others to help her

5 Lena An earth goddess –fertility - bovine, placid, calm, unchanged, timeless – An earth goddess –fertility - bovine, placid, calm, unchanged, timeless – “Faulkner begins by establishing her pagan kinship with Mother Earth and with the fruitful light of August: ‘swollen, slow deliberate, unhurried and tireless as augmenting afternoon itself … with that providential caution of the old earth of and with and by which she lives.’” (Thompson 80) “Faulkner begins by establishing her pagan kinship with Mother Earth and with the fruitful light of August: ‘swollen, slow deliberate, unhurried and tireless as augmenting afternoon itself … with that providential caution of the old earth of and with and by which she lives.’” (Thompson 80)

6 Lena Grove Hightower thinks “That will be her life, her destiny. The good stock peopling in tranquil obedience to it the good earth; from these hearty loins without hurry or haste descending mother and daughter. But by Byron engendered next” (406). Hightower thinks “That will be her life, her destiny. The good stock peopling in tranquil obedience to it the good earth; from these hearty loins without hurry or haste descending mother and daughter. But by Byron engendered next” (406).

7 Lena Grove Carrying an illegitimate child – who is born on the morning of the day that Joe Christmas is to die Carrying an illegitimate child – who is born on the morning of the day that Joe Christmas is to die

8 New born Content with mother – her repose in a troubled world of estrangement Content with mother – her repose in a troubled world of estrangement He is a token of community – a Christ child – related to all mankind: He is a token of community – a Christ child – related to all mankind:

9 New Born Child Bastard of Burch Bastard of Burch foster son of Bunch foster son of Bunch restores life to Miss Burden’s property, restores life to Miss Burden’s property, the godson of Hightower – who delivers baby the godson of Hightower – who delivers baby apparent child of Joe Christmas - in the eyes of Joe’s grandmother Mrs. Hines, who says, “It’s Joey. It’s my Milly’s little boy” (398) apparent child of Joe Christmas - in the eyes of Joe’s grandmother Mrs. Hines, who says, “It’s Joey. It’s my Milly’s little boy” (398) And also of Lena, who says, “and I think that his pa is that Mr. Christmas too” (409). And also of Lena, who says, “and I think that his pa is that Mr. Christmas too” (409).

10 New Born Child The newborn’s birth is a positive reenactment of the birth of Joe Christmas because the community comes to Lena’s aid to be sure the child is safe – the isolation of all the main characters is broken by the birth of the child. The newborn’s birth is a positive reenactment of the birth of Joe Christmas because the community comes to Lena’s aid to be sure the child is safe – the isolation of all the main characters is broken by the birth of the child. The child is the future. He too is a bastard child, but he will be loved. He symbolically is JC reborn, but he elicits compassion rather than hatred. The child is the future. He too is a bastard child, but he will be loved. He symbolically is JC reborn, but he elicits compassion rather than hatred.

11 Byron Bunch The furniture repairer says of Byron he was “the kind of fellow you wouldn’t see at fist glance if he was alone by himself in the bottom of an empty swimming pool” (495). The furniture repairer says of Byron he was “the kind of fellow you wouldn’t see at fist glance if he was alone by himself in the bottom of an empty swimming pool” (495). And – “the kind that would hold a job steady and work at the same job a long time, without bothering anybody about a raise neither, long as they let him keep on working (496). And – “the kind that would hold a job steady and work at the same job a long time, without bothering anybody about a raise neither, long as they let him keep on working (496). Member of the great bunch (or mass) of people who do not have the tragic intensity of Joe, Joanna, or Hightower. Member of the great bunch (or mass) of people who do not have the tragic intensity of Joe, Joanna, or Hightower.

12 Byron Bunch Unsure of himself – he stumbles every time he enters Hightower’s house Unsure of himself – he stumbles every time he enters Hightower’s house Works six days a week – leads a choir on Sunday mornings – all to stay out of trouble Works six days a week – leads a choir on Sunday mornings – all to stay out of trouble Isolation broken by Lena – he becomes more assertive, no longer stumbles Isolation broken by Lena – he becomes more assertive, no longer stumbles Takes on the role of Joseph – sees Lena as a virgin (page 401) even though she is pregnant. Provides care for Lena and baby. Takes on the role of Joseph – sees Lena as a virgin (page 401) even though she is pregnant. Provides care for Lena and baby.

13 Byron the Bold Lover Faulkner ends the novel with Byron in pursuit of Lena. Hightower has predicted that they will eventually marry and have many children Faulkner ends the novel with Byron in pursuit of Lena. Hightower has predicted that they will eventually marry and have many children Faulkner leaves Byron as the lover in the poem: “Bold lover never, never canst thou kiss,/ tho winning near the goal” Faulkner leaves Byron as the lover in the poem: “Bold lover never, never canst thou kiss,/ tho winning near the goal”

14 Gail Hightower Gail – “a sort of cyclone that did not even need to touch the actual earth. ….it was as if he couldn’t get religion and that galloping cavalry and his dead grandfather shot from the galloping horse untangled from each other… (62) Gail – “a sort of cyclone that did not even need to touch the actual earth. ….it was as if he couldn’t get religion and that galloping cavalry and his dead grandfather shot from the galloping horse untangled from each other… (62) Hightower – a perch from which he watches all Hightower – a perch from which he watches all

15 Gail Hightower An intellectual immersed in Keats and Tennyson – (romantic hero worship) An intellectual immersed in Keats and Tennyson – (romantic hero worship) Preoccupied with the glory and crimes of the past (particularly of the Civil War) Preoccupied with the glory and crimes of the past (particularly of the Civil War) A failed minister, a failed husband A failed minister, a failed husband Now isolated and cut off from life Now isolated and cut off from life

16 Hightower anticipates the lynching “It seems to him that the past week has rushed like a torrent and that the week to come, which will begin tomorrow, is the abyss, and that now on the brink of cataract the stream has raised a single blended and sonorous and austere cry, not for justification but as a dying salute before its own plunge, and not to any god but to the doomed man in the barred cell within hearing of them and of two other churches, and in whose crucifixion they too will raise a cross. ‘And they will do it gladly… Since to pity him would be to admit self doubt and to hope for and need pity themselves. They will do it gladly, gladly. That’s why it is so terrible, terrible, terrible” (368). “It seems to him that the past week has rushed like a torrent and that the week to come, which will begin tomorrow, is the abyss, and that now on the brink of cataract the stream has raised a single blended and sonorous and austere cry, not for justification but as a dying salute before its own plunge, and not to any god but to the doomed man in the barred cell within hearing of them and of two other churches, and in whose crucifixion they too will raise a cross. ‘And they will do it gladly… Since to pity him would be to admit self doubt and to hope for and need pity themselves. They will do it gladly, gladly. That’s why it is so terrible, terrible, terrible” (368).

17 Holds clergy responsible: “that which is destroying the Church is not the outward groping of those within it nor the inward groping of those without, but the professionals who control it and who have removed the bells from its steeples. He seems to see them, endless, without order, empty, symbolical, bleak, skypointed not with ecstasy or passion but in adjuration, threat, and doom. He seems to see the churches of the world like a rampart, like one of those barricades of the middle ages planted with dead and sharpened stakes, against truth and against peace in which to sin and be forgiven which is the life of man….. I served it. I served it by using it to forward my own desire” (487). Holds clergy responsible: “that which is destroying the Church is not the outward groping of those within it nor the inward groping of those without, but the professionals who control it and who have removed the bells from its steeples. He seems to see them, endless, without order, empty, symbolical, bleak, skypointed not with ecstasy or passion but in adjuration, threat, and doom. He seems to see the churches of the world like a rampart, like one of those barricades of the middle ages planted with dead and sharpened stakes, against truth and against peace in which to sin and be forgiven which is the life of man….. I served it. I served it by using it to forward my own desire” (487).

18 Gail Hightower Imposes his own circle – in the end sees the wheel turning Imposes his own circle – in the end sees the wheel turning In the end holds himself responsible – knows he failed his wife and his church In the end holds himself responsible – knows he failed his wife and his church Eventually admits that grandfather was killed ignominiously in a henhouse while stealing chickens Eventually admits that grandfather was killed ignominiously in a henhouse while stealing chickens Faulkner’s comment on mythologizing the Civil War Faulkner’s comment on mythologizing the Civil War

19 Eupheus (Doc) Hines – The janitor The janitor – “his eyes were quite clear, quite gray, quite cold. They were quite mad too.” The janitor – “his eyes were quite clear, quite gray, quite cold. They were quite mad too.” Beard like a goat Beard like a goat

20 Doc Hines Mrs. Hines says of him, “He said he had to fight because he is littler than most men and so folks would try to put on him. That was his vanity and his pride. But I told him it was because the devil was in him” (372). Mrs. Hines says of him, “He said he had to fight because he is littler than most men and so folks would try to put on him. That was his vanity and his pride. But I told him it was because the devil was in him” (372).

21 Doc Hines Sees self as an instrument of God – Sees self as an instrument of God – Misuses Christianity to justify hatred– Mrs. Hines says of him -[earlier] “He [was] doing well because he hadn’t begun then to take God’s name in vain and in pride to justify and excuse the devil that was in him” (373). Misuses Christianity to justify hatred– Mrs. Hines says of him -[earlier] “He [was] doing well because he hadn’t begun then to take God’s name in vain and in pride to justify and excuse the devil that was in him” (373).

22 Doc Hines A misogynist – “It’s God’s abomination of woman flesh!” (373). A misogynist – “It’s God’s abomination of woman flesh!” (373). A racist – “Telling old Doc Hines, that knowed better, that he was a Mexican. When old Doc Hines could see in his face the black curse of God Almighty” (374). A racist – “Telling old Doc Hines, that knowed better, that he was a Mexican. When old Doc Hines could see in his face the black curse of God Almighty” (374). “He ain’t never said how he found out [the racial identity of Milly’s lover] like that never made any difference” (374). “He ain’t never said how he found out [the racial identity of Milly’s lover] like that never made any difference” (374).

23 Doc Hines “The Lord told old Doc Hines what to do and old Doc Hines watched and heard the mouths of little children, of God’s own fatherless and motherless, putting His words and knowledge into their mouths even when they couldn’t know it since they were without sin yet, even the girl ones without sin and bitchery yet: Nigger! Nigger! In the innocent mouths of little children” (382). “The Lord told old Doc Hines what to do and old Doc Hines watched and heard the mouths of little children, of God’s own fatherless and motherless, putting His words and knowledge into their mouths even when they couldn’t know it since they were without sin yet, even the girl ones without sin and bitchery yet: Nigger! Nigger! In the innocent mouths of little children” (382).

24 Doc Hines A Christian who allows his own daughter to die in childbirth because she is unwed. A Christian who allows his own daughter to die in childbirth because she is unwed. A Christian who abandons his own grandson on Christmas Eve. A Christian who abandons his own grandson on Christmas Eve.

25 Mrs. Hines “I don’t think that the old lady had any hope of saving him when she came, any actual hope. I “I don’t think that the old lady had any hope of saving him when she came, any actual hope. I believe that all she wanted was that he die “decent”, as she put it. Decently hung by a Force, a principle; not burned or hacked or dragged by a Thing (445). This is Faulkner’s specific comment on the brutality of lynching.

26 Percy Grimm The grim reaper who says to the castrated and dying Joe Christmas, “Now you’ll let white women alone, even in hell” (464). The grim reaper who says to the castrated and dying Joe Christmas, “Now you’ll let white women alone, even in hell” (464). Claims God’s guidance as the justification for his final action in castrating and killing Joe Christmas. Motivated by “a sublime and implicit faith in physical courage and blind obedience, and a belief that the white race is superior to any and all other races and that the American uniform is superior to all men, and that all that would ever be required of him in payment for this belief, this privilege, would be his own life” (451).Faulkner called him his Hitler. Claims God’s guidance as the justification for his final action in castrating and killing Joe Christmas. Motivated by “a sublime and implicit faith in physical courage and blind obedience, and a belief that the white race is superior to any and all other races and that the American uniform is superior to all men, and that all that would ever be required of him in payment for this belief, this privilege, would be his own life” (451).Faulkner called him his Hitler.

27 Lynching More than 2,500 lynchings in last 16 years of the 1800’s – the great majority of which were of Negroes, with Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana leading the nation. (Faulkner was born in Mississippi in 1897 and died there in 1962). More than 2,500 lynchings in last 16 years of the 1800’s – the great majority of which were of Negroes, with Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana leading the nation. (Faulkner was born in Mississippi in 1897 and died there in 1962). More than 100 Negroes lynched in the first year of the twentieth century. More than 100 Negroes lynched in the first year of the twentieth century. By 1914, more than 1,100 lynchings in US since 1900. By 1914, more than 1,100 lynchings in US since 1900. Source: From Slavery to Freedom A History of Negro Americans by John Hope Franklin page 439-440 Source: From Slavery to Freedom A History of Negro Americans by John Hope Franklin page 439-440

28 Joanna Burden Jo and a burden - Burdened by the past – isolated from community Jo and a burden - Burdened by the past – isolated from community Carries the legacy of taking up the white man’s burden –granddaughter and daughter of fanatical abolitionists, carpetbaggers– “Damn lowbuilt black folks: lowbuilt because of the weight of the wrath of God, black because of the sin of human bondage staining their blood and flesh” (247). Carries the legacy of taking up the white man’s burden –granddaughter and daughter of fanatical abolitionists, carpetbaggers– “Damn lowbuilt black folks: lowbuilt because of the weight of the wrath of God, black because of the sin of human bondage staining their blood and flesh” (247).

29 “But after that I seemed to see them for the first time not as people, but as a thing, a shadow in which I lived, we lived, all white people, all other people. I thought of all the children coming forever and ever into the world, white, with the black shadow already falling upon them before they drew breath. And I seemed to see the black shadow in the shape of a cross…” (253). “But after that I seemed to see them for the first time not as people, but as a thing, a shadow in which I lived, we lived, all white people, all other people. I thought of all the children coming forever and ever into the world, white, with the black shadow already falling upon them before they drew breath. And I seemed to see the black shadow in the shape of a cross…” (253).

30 Joe and Joanna Faulkner reverses slave master and slave sexual roles. Joe treated like slave – eats in kitchen “His hands saw; the dishes were still warm, thinking Set out for the nigger. For the nigger’ (238) Faulkner reverses slave master and slave sexual roles. Joe treated like slave – eats in kitchen “His hands saw; the dishes were still warm, thinking Set out for the nigger. For the nigger’ (238) Responds to myth or stereotype of black man’s sexual prowess – cries out “Negro! Negro! Negro!” (260). Becomes nymphomaniac Responds to myth or stereotype of black man’s sexual prowess – cries out “Negro! Negro! Negro!” (260). Becomes nymphomaniac

31 Joanna and Joe Believes she is with child –Offers Joe a life, which requires that (although his skin is parchment (white) he embrace being a Negro. Believes she is with child –Offers Joe a life, which requires that (although his skin is parchment (white) he embrace being a Negro. Eventually she and Joe realize she has entered menopause. Starts to feel she must reform, give up the sinful life she has experienced with Joe. Asks him, insists that he pray with her. Eventually she and Joe realize she has entered menopause. Starts to feel she must reform, give up the sinful life she has experienced with Joe. Asks him, insists that he pray with her. Triggers Joe’s memories of abuse at hands of McEachern Triggers Joe’s memories of abuse at hands of McEachern

32 Joe and Joanna Shoots at Joe believing they would both be better off dead. Shoots at Joe believing they would both be better off dead. The gun misfires The gun misfires Joe uses his only possession the razor to kill her, but it is self defense Joe uses his only possession the razor to kill her, but it is self defense

33 Joe Christmas Abandoned on Christmas Eve asks “Is God a nigger too?”(383). Abandoned on Christmas Eve asks “Is God a nigger too?”(383). “… there was something definitely rootless about him, as though no town nor city was his, no street, no walls, no square of earth his home” (31) “… there was something definitely rootless about him, as though no town nor city was his, no street, no walls, no square of earth his home” (31) Asks, “Just when do men that have different blood in them stop hating one another? “ (249) Asks, “Just when do men that have different blood in them stop hating one another? “ (249)

34 Joe Christmas Victim of misogynistic and racist beliefs justified by religion– ostracized by both white and black communities. Marginal, bereaved, outraged – wants merely to live -“All I wanted was peace. Was that so much to ask?” Victim of misogynistic and racist beliefs justified by religion– ostracized by both white and black communities. Marginal, bereaved, outraged – wants merely to live -“All I wanted was peace. Was that so much to ask?” Insists on his right to be human Insists on his right to be human Naturalism – JC a victim of forces of heredity, environment, neurotic causation, social maladjustment. Naturalism – JC a victim of forces of heredity, environment, neurotic causation, social maladjustment.

35 Repetitive pattern of life – a circle – from the silver dollar given by dietitian to the pattern of flight – wants to break out of circle – to define self as human. With each woman he has a chance to break out of circle, but he succumbs to compulsion to preserve isolation. Repetitive pattern of life – a circle – from the silver dollar given by dietitian to the pattern of flight – wants to break out of circle – to define self as human. With each woman he has a chance to break out of circle, but he succumbs to compulsion to preserve isolation. Motif of food – from dietitian, to Bobbie the waitress, to Joanna’s first statement to him: “If it’s just food you want, you will find that” (231) to his obsession with food and then the necessity to eat (334). What is the significance of this motif? Motif of food – from dietitian, to Bobbie the waitress, to Joanna’s first statement to him: “If it’s just food you want, you will find that” (231) to his obsession with food and then the necessity to eat (334). What is the significance of this motif?

36 he is entering it again, the street which ran for thirty years… It had made a circle and he is still inside of it. Though during the last seven days he has had no paved street, yet he has traveled further than in all thirty years before. And yet he is still inside the circle. ‘And yet I have been further in these seven days than in all the thirty years,’ he thinks. ‘But I have never got outside the circle…” (339). he is entering it again, the street which ran for thirty years… It had made a circle and he is still inside of it. Though during the last seven days he has had no paved street, yet he has traveled further than in all thirty years before. And yet he is still inside the circle. ‘And yet I have been further in these seven days than in all the thirty years,’ he thinks. ‘But I have never got outside the circle…” (339).

37 Joe Christmas ”…he was hearing a myriad sounds… voices … thinking God perhaps and me not knowing that too He could see it like a printed sentence, fullborn and already dead God loves me too like the faded and weathered letters on a last year’s billboard God Loves me too (105). ”…he was hearing a myriad sounds… voices … thinking God perhaps and me not knowing that too He could see it like a printed sentence, fullborn and already dead God loves me too like the faded and weathered letters on a last year’s billboard God Loves me too (105).

38 Joe’s racial identity When as a small child Joe asks a black man, “How come you are a nigger?” the man responds, “Who told you I am a nigger, you little white trash bastard? And he says ‘I ain’t a nigger’ and the nigger says ‘You are worse than that. You don’t know what you are. And more than that, you won’t never know. You’ll live and you’ll die and you won’t ever know” (384). When as a small child Joe asks a black man, “How come you are a nigger?” the man responds, “Who told you I am a nigger, you little white trash bastard? And he says ‘I ain’t a nigger’ and the nigger says ‘You are worse than that. You don’t know what you are. And more than that, you won’t never know. You’ll live and you’ll die and you won’t ever know” (384).

39 Evidence of Joe’s race Faulkner once said that the worst fate was to not know who you are, but he also repeatedly suggests that Joe’s father was Mexican. Faulkner once said that the worst fate was to not know who you are, but he also repeatedly suggests that Joe’s father was Mexican. When Joanna asks, how do you know [that one of your parents was part Negro], Joe answers, “I don’t know it….If I’m not, damned if I haven’t wasted a lot of time” (254). When Joanna asks, how do you know [that one of your parents was part Negro], Joe answers, “I don’t know it….If I’m not, damned if I haven’t wasted a lot of time” (254). Every time a black person is asked about Joe, he is described as a white man: pages 293, 322, 324, 329 Every time a black person is asked about Joe, he is described as a white man: pages 293, 322, 324, 329

40 Joe described as white He will look just like a pea in a pan full of coffee beans (if sent to an orphanage for black children). (130). He will look just like a pea in a pan full of coffee beans (if sent to an orphanage for black children). (130). “Christmas! That white nigger that did the killing up at Jefferson last week!”(344) “Christmas! That white nigger that did the killing up at Jefferson last week!”(344) “He don’t look no more like a nigger than I do, either” (346). “He don’t look no more like a nigger than I do, either” (346). “He don’t look any more like a nigger than I do…” (349. “He don’t look any more like a nigger than I do…” (349. “He went into a white barbarshop like a white man, and because he looked like a white man they never suspected him…” (349) “He went into a white barbarshop like a white man, and because he looked like a white man they never suspected him…” (349)

41 “He never acted like either a nigger or a white man….It was like he never knew he was a murderer, let alone a nigger too” (350). “He never acted like either a nigger or a white man….It was like he never knew he was a murderer, let alone a nigger too” (350). “[Hines] ain’t never said how he found out [about the racial identity of Milly’s partner], like that never made any difference” (374) “[Hines] ain’t never said how he found out [about the racial identity of Milly’s partner], like that never made any difference” (374) Hines “grabbed the man that might have been a stranger or a neighbor for all he could have known by sight or hearing. Grabbed him by one hand… and shot him dead… and left the man in the road” (376). Hines “grabbed the man that might have been a stranger or a neighbor for all he could have known by sight or hearing. Grabbed him by one hand… and shot him dead… and left the man in the road” (376).

42 …it was just that circus man that said he was a nigger and maybe he never knew for certain” (378). …it was just that circus man that said he was a nigger and maybe he never knew for certain” (378). Faulkner deliberately leaves Joe’s racial identity uncertain, but repeatedly suggests that he is not black at all. Faulkner deliberately leaves Joe’s racial identity uncertain, but repeatedly suggests that he is not black at all. In Schoene’s opinion, this is the ultimate criticism of the irrational nature of racism. In Schoene’s opinion, this is the ultimate criticism of the irrational nature of racism. Racism is rooted only in irrational hatred, not in the color of a man’s skin. Racism is rooted only in irrational hatred, not in the color of a man’s skin.

43 Joe Christmas He is killed for the sins of others. He is killed for the sins of others. Faulkner holds southerners up for scrutiny for misusing Christianity as a means to justify their hatreds. Faulkner holds southerners up for scrutiny for misusing Christianity as a means to justify their hatreds.

44 “Light in August provides an intensely ironic representation of those analogous characters who find it convenient to lay their burdens on the Lord and thus excuse themselves from any responsibility which is inconvenient” (Thompson 77). “Light in August provides an intensely ironic representation of those analogous characters who find it convenient to lay their burdens on the Lord and thus excuse themselves from any responsibility which is inconvenient” (Thompson 77).

45 JC as scapegoat Joe Christmas is “misused as a scapegoat by those elements of his society who have first made him in their own image and have then dodged their own moral responsibilities by attempting to heap their own sins on him, as they crucify him, so that they may obtain the illusion of having thus achieved some form of purification and redemption. Joe Christmas is “misused as a scapegoat by those elements of his society who have first made him in their own image and have then dodged their own moral responsibilities by attempting to heap their own sins on him, as they crucify him, so that they may obtain the illusion of having thus achieved some form of purification and redemption.

46 The Christ figure Matthew 25: 40 Matthew 25: 40 Jesus said, “Whatever you did unto the least of these you did unto me…” Joe Christmas – who believed he was of mixed race in a strictly segregated society where Negroes were despised - was certainly the least of these.

47 “Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe “Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say’st, Beauty is truth, truth beauty”… that is all Ye know on earth and all ye need to know.” Ye know on earth and all ye need to know.” John Keats

48 Faulkner’s Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because …he has a voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and enduarance. The poet’s, the writer’s, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past. I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because …he has a voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and enduarance. The poet’s, the writer’s, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past.

49 Faulkner’s Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech The poet’s voice need not merely be the record of man, it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail.


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