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Stocks Chapter 23 Pages 372-385. Objectives Summarize the role of various ingredients in the production of stock. Recall the attributes of a well-made.

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Presentation on theme: "Stocks Chapter 23 Pages 372-385. Objectives Summarize the role of various ingredients in the production of stock. Recall the attributes of a well-made."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stocks Chapter 23 Pages

2 Objectives Summarize the role of various ingredients in the production of stock. Recall the attributes of a well-made stock. Understand bouillons and broths and their uses. Explain how vegetable stocks are made and how they differ from classic meat-based stocks. Compare bases and stocks.

3 Terminology Stock Fumet Gelatin Mouthfeel Collagen Reduce Sachet Boutquet garni White stock Brown stock Blanching Deglaze Bouillon Broth Base

4 Stocks A highly flavored liquid made by simmering bones with vegetables, herbs, and spices Adds depth of flavor and color to a wide variety of dishes Without a well-made stock it is difficult to produce high-quality cuisine Considered one of the building blocks of cooking

5 Dishes that use Stock Soups Sauces Gravies Braised meat and vegetables Rice, grain, and potato preparations

6 Basic Stock Ingredients Nutritive Aromatic Liquid

7 Nutritive Ingredients Bones are the most important ingredient Contributes the predominant flavors to stock Meat can also be added with the bones to intensify the flavor Bones add body to the stock  Bones produce gelatin- an animal protein that when dissolved in a hot liquid adds to a rich mouthfeel

8 Aromatic Ingredients One ingredient that is not added to stock is salt- if was it could not be used for such a wide range of preparations Stocks can be reduced to improve and strengthen flavor- if they were salted it would become too salty

9 Vegetables Mirepoix  2 parts onion, 1 part celery, and 1 part carrot White mirepoix  2 part onion, 1 part celery, and 1 part leek The longer a stock cooks the larger the mirepoix can be In general 1 pound of mirepoix is added for every 10 pounds of bones Mushrooms and tomatoes are also sometimes added to improve flavor

10 Vegetables’ Contributions to Stock Flavor VegetableFlavor Onion, rawstrong pungent flavor, especially if the stock is not simmered for a long time Onion, sautéed, roasted, or caramelized Sweetness CarrotSweetness and a touch of earthiness, also adds an orange hue to the stock Tomato, freshAcidity and a fresh tomato flavor Tomato, cooked, canned, or paste Acidity and a deep tomato sauce flavor, as well as, adding a red color to the stock Mushrooms, rawDelicate flavor Mushrooms, sautéed or roasted Intense meaty flavor and deepens the color of the stock CeleryFreshness

11 Herbs and Spices Most stocks are flavored with 3 herbs (thyme, bay leaf, and parsley) and 1 spice (black peppercorns) Add in the form of a sachet or bouquet garni  Sachet (sa SHAY)  Small cheese-cloth bag containing herbs and spices  Bouquet garni (boo KAY gar NEE)  Bundle of fresh herbs tied to a piece of vegetable  Also need a sachet for the peppercorns

12 Liquid Most are simmered in water Some use a small amount of wine with water  Adds acidity  Brightens the stock’s flavor and improves overall clarity How much liquid is added depends on the amount of bones Rule of thumb is bones should be covered by one to two inches of water In general one pound of bones yields 2 cups of finished stock

13 Attributes of a Well Made Stock Color  Fish are valued for light, almost transparent stock  Chicken should have a rich golden hue  Beef or veal are characterized by a brown color Clarity  Should be clear  Shouldn’t be cloudy, murky, or muddy

14 Attributes of a Well Made Stock Flavor  Has intense flavor that mirrors the nutritive and aromatic ingredients used to make the stock Body  Refer to the amount of gelatin in a stock  Should be as gelatin-rich as possible  Many stocks partially solidify when cooled

15 Stock Preparation White stock  Made from raw or slightly cooked bones and white mirepoix  Should have a light pale to deep golden color Brown stock

16 White Stock  Made from raw or slightly cooked bones and white mirepoix  Should have a light pale to deep golden color Commonly made using poultry, fish, or veal bones  Chicken bones  Rinsed in cold water to remove excess blood  Fish bones  Coarsely chopped then rinsed  Large bones  Cut into 2-3 inch long pieces

17 White Stock Preparation Bones are blanched before using when making a white stock  Refers to the process of placing bones in cold water, bringing water to a boil, and then discarding water  Produces a clear stock since most impurities are discarded with the blanched water  Also removes some of the bones’ flavor  Only large bones can be blanched because of this

18 Brown Stock  Made from roasted bones and roasted or sautéed mirepoix  Noted for rich roasted flavor and caramel color Can be made from all bones except fish Made from well-roasted nutritive ingredients and vegetables While the stock simmers, the roasted ingredients release their brown color and roasted flavor to the stock The roasted bones leave some of their flavor behind in the pan

19 Deglazing a Brown Stock To capture the flavor, the roasting pan is deglazed  The liquid is added to a roasting pan to dissolve the browned bits off the bottom and the liquid is then added to the stock  Greatly improves the flavor and color  If the bottom of the roasting pan burns the pan should not be deglazed  Deepens the color of the stock but also makes it bitter

20 Storing Stock Properly chilled stocks have a shelf life of 5 days Refrigerator must be below 41° and the stock is well covered If stocks need to be stored for longer periods of time they can be frozen

21 Checking Quality Stock is high in protein, low in salt, high in moisture, and close to a pH of 7 Makes for a perfect breading ground for microorganisms Always inspect a stock’s appearance and odor before using it Signs that the stock has spoiled are as follows:  Offensive smell  Cloudy appearance  Ropy or stringy texture  Bubbles rinsing to the surface

22 Stock Errors SymptomCause Cloudy stock Stock improperly or never skimmed Stock boiled instead of skimmed Nutritive ingredients were first covered in hot water instead of cold water Bones not blanched for a white stock No flavor Stock not covered long enough Too much water added to the stock ingredients Little body Too much water added to the stock ingredients Stock not cooked long enough Bones with little collagen were used Pale-colored brown stock Nutritive ingredients not roasted enough Too much water was added to the stock ingredients Stock has spoiled Stock was not chilled properly Stock stored in cooler too long

23 Bouillons and Broths Stock-like preparations that are made with a larger proportion of meat than bone and a greater variety of vegetables than stocks Are clearer and contain less gelatin due to lack of bones Classically reserved for soup preparation However, many restaurants use stocks because bouillons and broths are more expensive

24 Vegetable Stock Technically, they are not true stock but they are not made from bones Can be prepared in endless ways because they are so many different types of vegetables For white stocks vegetables are raw; for brown stocks are roasted Differ from meat-based stocks in that vegetables have no gelatin  So stocks lack mouthfeel and do not solidify when chilled

25 Bases Concentrated instant powder or paste that dissolves in hot water to make a stock-like liquid Saves stove space Takes much less time to make- lower labor cost and free cooks up to do other tasks Don’t have the same taste as stock from scratch Contains a lot of salt Vary considerably in quality Ones that require refrigeration are better Bases that list salt, sugar, and fat as main ingredients are lower in quality

26 White StockVegetable StockBroth/BouillonBrown Stock Water Bouquet garni and/or sachet Possibly tomato product Brown mirepoix Raw or blanched bones White wine for fish stock only Possibly wine Meat with a smaller amount of bones Browned bones Raw or sweated white mirepoix Raw, sweated, or browned mirepoix, plus additional vegetables Tomato product


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