2 Brand Awareness and Image Study Wine Institute of California The Hague, February 3rd, 2009Commissioned by: Wine Institute of CaliforniaPaul MollemanExecuted by: MORPH ResearchCas WeijenbergYvette RandsdorpVersion 1.1
3 Disclaimer:All conclusions, advisory opinions and/or recommendations, as well as any content of an advisory nature, have been given to the best of our ability and knowledge.Morph Research has conducted this study and/or provided advice based on the client’s prior conditions and using information/products obtained from the client and/or third parties. Other factors and information not included in this study could lead to different conclusions, advisory opinions and/or recommendations. Morph Research has no control over the information/products obtained from the client and/or third parties and will not be liable for the content of such materials.Results from services and/or advice from Morph Research are provided “as is” and no rights may be derived from their content. Morph Research will not be responsible and/or liable for damages and/or claims on the part of the client and/or third parties as a result of third party disclosure of (parts of) the results presented in the following report.Copyright exclusively owned by Morph Research. Publication, duplication and/or distribution with source indication only.
4 Index Introduction Summary Conclusions and Recommendations Results AppendicesAdditional tablesAdditional comments made by respondentsAssociations with California and Californian wines
6 Introduction Background California is one of the so called New World countries, having almost 250 years of experience in wine making. California is by far the most important USA wine producing state. The Californian climate makes this area perfect for making high quality, reliable and diverse wines.The Wine Institute of California is a trade organization of California wineries. The International Department manages the “Export Program”. With funding from the federal government and member wineries, its objective is to increase exports of Californian wine by generic promotion of Californian wines. The European activities are managed by the European office located in the Hague, the Netherlands.
7 Introduction Research objectives Problem definitionUnderlying this study are two issues, indicated by the Wine Institute of California:In comparison to most New World wines, Californian wine has a modest market share in most countries. To a certain extent, that is due to lower overall price levels of other New World wine countries. But to what extent are awareness and image a factor in this?Currently, there is no insight into the effects of the generic PRprograms of the Wine Institute of California on awareness, usage and image levels of California wines. This research will act as benchmark for evaluating PR programs.Main objectives of the studyThe main objectives of this study are getting insight in:the awareness of California wine versus other New World countriesexperience with California wines: trial/usage of California winesthe image of California wine versus other New World countriesthe image of California wine and the image aspects of California as a state
8 Introduction Method of research In order to obtain the desired information, online research has been executed in eight European countries:BelgiumDenmarkGermanyThe NetherlandsPolandRussiaSwedenSwitzerlandFor data collection online panels have been used.In week 48 to 50 (start Friday November 28th 2008) panel members received an invitation for the survey.SampleFor this study a representative sample (gender/age/region) has been drawn of at least n = 500 per country, meeting the following criteria:Age: 18 years or olderWine consumption: drinking wine at least once a monthThe total sample consists of 4415 respondents, approximately 550 per country.
10 Summary Awareness Awareness of Californian wines After Chilean wine, Californian wine has the highest awareness of the New World wines; three-quarters of the respondents have heard from wine from this country. In Germany, Poland and Switzerland Californian wine is even the best known New World wine.However the spontaneous awareness of Californian wine stays a little bit behind: one third of the respondents spontaneously mentions Californian wine, putting California on the fourth place of the New World countries. The spontaneous awareness of Californian wines is lowest in Russia (8%).The largest Californian wine region, Napa Valley, also appears to be the best known. Of the quarter of respondents that can mention one or more Californian wine regions, 43% mentions Napa Valley.Differences between countries in awarenessThere are a lot of differences between countries in the awareness of different wine producing countries. Especially the contrast between Russia and Poland at one side and the more Western countries on the other hand is significant: Russians and Poles mention wine countries that are rarely mentioned in the other countries (like Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova and Georgia), and on the other hand the awareness of wine countries like Australia and South Africa is relatively low in these countries.Other wines, like Dutch, German, Danish and Swiss wines, mainly have a high level of spontaneous awareness in their own countries of origin.
11 Summary Consumption Frequency of wine consumption Wine consumption is highest among the Dutch respondents, where more than half of the respondents drinks a glass of wine more than once a week. Due to the limited number of points of sale and high prices wine consumption is lowest in Sweden.Preference for specific wine countriesRespondents most frequently consume Old World Wines, especially French wines. South African and Chilean wines are the most popular New World wines. For only 2% of the respondents Californian wine is the wine of their preference, i.e. the wine they purchase/consume most frequently.Differences between countries are found in the wines respondents prefer: Belgians most often buy or consume French wines, while Germans most often choose wine from their own country. Among the Danish Chilean wine is most favorite, while South African wine has its largest host of fans in The Netherlands and Sweden, and Spanish wine in Poland and Sweden.Just like the awareness also the wine consumption of Russians and Poles differs from that of the other respondents: they often consume wines from countries like Hungary, Bulgaria and Moldova.Respondents with a preference for Californian wines also consume mainly Old World wines. French wines are significantly less popular among these respondents. After Californian wine, Australian wine is the most popular among these respondents. Herein Californian wine fans differ from wine consumers in general, who prefer Chilean and South African wines to Australian.For 17% of the Californian wine drinkers, Californian wine is the wine they consume most frequently.Consumption of Californian wineTwo fifths of the Californian wine consumers purchase or consume wine from this country often or regularly. Californian wine is mostly consumed in home.The supermarket is the most common place to purchase wine, only in Poland respondents buy their wine as often in the supermarket as in the wine shop or liquor store.
12 Summary Awareness and consumption Californian wines are tried less often than you would expect based on the aided brand awareness. Wine from Chile and South Africa have a better conversion rate: spontaneous awareness – trial. Also relatively few Californian wine drinkers see Californian wine as the wine of their preference.
13 Summary ImageImageOld World wines score better on the image aspects than New World wines, but they are also seen as more expensive. French wines score highest on quality, image, biologic/ecologic and taste. Only on value for money Italian wine is rated higher.When the different image aspects are compared the wines from all countries except France are rated best on having a good taste. French wines score best on having a good image.Image of Californian wineAlso Californian wine is rated best on its good taste, followed by its image and quality. Californian wine scores lower on offering value for money and being made biologically/ecologically.The image of Californian wine is not the same in all countries. Belgians rate this wine relatively low on value for money and biologically/ecologically. On the other hand Swiss respondents give relatively high ratings to Californian wine when compared to the ratings they give wine from the other countries.Image of Californian wine compared to other New World winesCompared to the other New World wines Californian wine is perceived as most expensive and scores relatively low on value for money. Together with Chile California shares the second place for having a good image, only South Africa has a higher score.
14 Summary Image Influence of awareness and consumption on image Awareness and consumption of Californian wine has a positive influence on its image: respondents that have heard of wine from California and respondents with a higher frequency of purchasing/consuming Californian wines give higher ratings. In countries with a lower awareness of Californian wines (Russia and Poland) these wines are rated higher on being made biologically/ecologically.Associations with the state CaliforniaThe respondents have diverse associations with the state California, with the sun by far the most mentioned. Roughly all the answers can be categorized in: sun, climate/weather, holidays, the rich and famous, landscape/nature, wine, Arnold Schwarzenegger, America, natural disasters. Besides these lots of other associations are mentioned.Associations with Californian winesAlso the associations with Californian wines are very diverse. A lot of the associations have to do with the taste/flavor of the wines. The general image rises from these associations that Californian wines are fruity wines and full of flavor.
16 Conclusions Awareness Compared to the other New World countries the awareness of Californian wines is good, but the spontaneous awareness leaves space for improvement. Especially when compared to Chilean and Australian wines. A lot of people know that wine is being produced in California, but they do not have Californian wines top of mind.Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, The Netherlands and Belgium are important export markets for Californian wines. In these first three countries the awareness of Californian wines is good, but in the Netherlands and Belgium it remains behind.ImageCompared to other New World wines Californian wine has a good overall image. However the ratings on ‘are expensive’ and ‘offer value for money’ show that many respondents judge the wine from California to be too expensive, partly based on experience and partly based on perception.The Wine Institute of California claims that Californian wines are well known, among others for their high quality. This is confirmed in this study.Given the mainly positive associations with the state California, this might have a positive impact on the image of Californian wines. The ecological image clearly stays behind.
17 Conclusions Experience Old World wines still have the largest market share. Chilean and South African wines are the best sold New World wines. The group of Californian wine drinkers consists of 12% of the total sample. These respondents have consumed Californian wine the past month (10%) or it even is the wine they consume most frequently (2%).California wine fans differ from other wine consumers in that they more often consume Italian and Spanish wines than French wines.
18 Recommendations Eco-friendly winemaking Californian wineries and wine growers have developed a code to promote eco-friendly winemaking. However, Californian wines do not score very high on this image aspect. So the aspect of ecological winemaking should be stressed more in the marketing and communication. Moreover because none of the other wine producing countries already seems to have claimed ecological wine making.Top of mindPeople do not have Californian wines top of mind. The spontaneous awareness clearly lags behind the aided awareness. Through in store communication and promotional activities Californian wine can be promoted more broadly to raise the top of mind position and the trial. This study shows clearly that people who drink Californian wines are much more positive about the quality and the value for money than people that do not drink Californian wines.Differences between countriesCountry differences imply a more country specific promotion and positioning plan. In some countries it is at first important to raise the awareness of Californian wines, in others emphasis should be laid on working at the image of these wines and formulating a more clearer (f.e. ecological) profile.In all countries a lot of respondents associate the state California and also its wines with the sun. Therefore the Wine Institute of California could consider to adopt the sun in her communication expressions.PriceCompared to the other New World wines Californian wines are relatively often perceived as expensive, but this does not have to be a problem. Because wines from France and Italy also are seen as expensive by a significant part of the respondents. However these wines get good ratings on the other image aspects and have a high awareness and consumption level. Compared to Californian wines, French and Italian wines are much more often rated as offering value for money.
20 Results AwarenessOne third of the respondents (31%) spontaneously mention California as a wine producing country and when aided, this percentage increases up to 74%.Of the New World wine countries, Chile is best known: 43% of the respondents mentions this country spontaneously as wine producing country, and when specifically asked 79% of the respondents know Chilean wine. Wine from New Zealand has the lowest awareness: only 4% mentions this country spontaneously, when aided this percentage increases to 39%.
21 Results Spontaneous awareness On average respondents mention 6.7 wine producing countries spontaneously.CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=4415n=554n=555n=560n=552n=550n=549n=538Wine from%France9096838788939791Italy766280816682Spain73717479Germany53642628574650Chile43422332775240Australia414438177683654South Africa33553784939 California*3125Portugal30242029Argentina9101822Bulgaria414111Hungary516Greece12Austria132715Switzerland32New Zealand6Average number of countries mentioned184.108.40.206.47.06.37.1* The spontaneous awareness of California as wine producing country includes respondents who answer ‘USA’ and when asked which specific states in the USA they know were wine is produced mention California first.
22 Results Spontaneous awareness In all countries French, Italian and Spanish wines are in the Top 5 most mentioned (spontaneously) wine producing countries. However, there also are a lot of differences between the various countries:Spontaneous awareness of Californian wine is lowest in Russia (8% vs 31% on average).Dutch, German, Danish and Swiss wines mainly have a high level of spontaneous awareness in their countries of origin.In Germany and Poland the spontaneous awareness of Greek wine is relatively high (28% resp. 25%, compared to 16% on average), while the spontaneous awareness of Argentinian (9% resp. 10%) and Chilean (28% resp. 23%) wines is relatively low in these countries.Chilean wine has a high level of awareness in Denmark (77% vs 43% on average).The spontaneous awareness of South African and German wine is relatively low in Poland and Russia (SA: 8% resp. 7%; GE: 26% resp. 28%). In the Netherlands South African wine has a high level of spontaneous awareness (55%, compared to 33% on average).Austrian wine is best known in Germany and Swiss (27% resp. 33%, compared to 13% on average).Australian wine is best known in Denmark, Sweden and Swiss (69%, 68%, 54%) and least known in Poland and Russia (17% resp. 7%).In Russia the spontaneous awareness of wines from Moldova (56%)*, Georgia* (49%) and Bulgaria (42%) is relatively high.In Poland the spontaneous awareness of wines from Bulgaria (44%), Portugal (41%), Hungary (41%) and Greece (25%) is relatively high.* Moldova and Georgia are not included in the table, because of the low awareness in the other countries.
23 Results Aided awareness California is the best known New World wine country among the German, Polish and Swiss respondents (83%, 69%, 91%).In the Netherlands California (66%) comes in fifth place, behind South Africa (95%), Australia (79%), Chile (77%) and Argentina (75%).Among the Russian respondents Chilean and Argentinian wines are very well known in comparison to the other New World wines.Awareness of the wine countries increases with the age of the respondents and is higher among men than among women (see appendix 1).CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=4415n=554n=556n=560n=552n=550n=553n=540Wine from%Chile797775596899958281 California7466836938889164South Africa732992947680Australia724933966786Argentina60558556New Zealand3942371916612646
24 Results Awareness of wine regions 74% of the respondents (n = 3257) have heard of Californian wines. From these respondents a quarter (23%, n = 738) can mention one or more specific wine regions in California spontaneously.The best known wine areas are located in the wine region Northern California Coast: Napa Valley (60%) and Sonoma County (13%).Wine regionsn=738%Northern California CoastMendocino CountyLake CountySonoma CountyNapa CountyLos Carneros64*131360Central California CoastLivermore ValleySanta Cruz MountainsMonterey CountyPaso RoblesSan Luis Obispo CountySanta Barbara County94Central ValleySouthern CaliforniaTemecula2Sierra Nevada* More than one answer possible. Therefore the percentages of the area’s do not count up to the percentages of the regions.
25 Results Consumption - Frequency Wine consumption is highest in The Netherlands: more than half of the respondents (55%) drinks a glass of wine several times a week, 20% even daily.Not surprisingly the lowest wine consumption is found in Sweden, where alcohol is very expensive and only sold in special stores. In this country only a quarter of the respondents drinks wine more than once a week (25%).* Respondents consuming a glass of wine less often than once a month are not involved in this study
26 Results Consumption - Country The Old World wines are purchased/consumed most frequently, especially French wines.Men more often mention French wines as their favorite than women (29% vs 25%). For the other wine countries no gender differences are found.Most favorite New World wine countries are South Africa and Chile.Californian wine is mentioned as wine they purchase or consume most frequently by 2% of all respondents (varying from 1-4% in the different countries).
27 Results Consumption - Country Differences in preference for specific wine countries can be seen between respondents from different countries (see the table on the next sheet):Belgians have a clear preference for French wines: for 64% of the respondents French wine is the one they purchase or consume most frequently.Spanish wine has most of its fans in Sweden (21%) and Poland (20%).Germans most often purchase/consume wine from their own country.Chilean wine is the most favorite wine among the Danish.South African wine is purchased/consumed most frequently by Dutch and Swedish people.Respondents of Poland, Russia and Switzerland very often mention another country:Respondents from Poland mention: Russians mention:▪ Hungary (6%) ▪ Russia (11%)▪ Bulgaria (5%) ▪ Moldova (6%)▪ Moldova (3%) ▪ Bulgaria (5%)▪ Poland (3%) ▪ Georgia (3%)Hungarian wine is also popular among the Swedish (11%), while the Swiss often mention Swiss wine (25%).
28 Results Consumption - Country From which country is the wine that you purchase or consume most frequently?CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=4415n=554n=555n=560n=552n=550n=549n=538Wine from%France273611243016106420Italy146171221138Spain7Germany523592Chile4123South AfricaAustraliaCaliforniaArgentinaNew ZealandOther, namely182628Don’t know
29 Results Consumption - Country When looking at the total wine consumption in the past month, no differences occur in the order of countries compared to the most frequently consumed wines.It’s remarkable that German wines, although resembling Spanish wines in percentage of respondents that consume these wines most frequently, stay behind in consumption in the past month.From which countries have you purchased or consumed wine the past month? (n=4415)
30 Results Consumption - Country Respondents from different countries differ in the country they have purchased/consumed wine from in the past month. These differences are comparable to the ones we found when comparing respondents on the wine country of their preference.Californian wine is purchased most in Switzerland (20%), Denmark (17%), Germany (15%) and Sweden (15%).From which countries have you purchased or consumed wine the past month?CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=4415n=554n=555n=560n=552n=550n=553n=540Wine from%France556543455851358753Italy42284938463956Spain3730342941Germany267812182722Chile25241519523316South Africa2350544013Australia336California917720Argentina1421168New Zealand1Other, namely57No other countryDon’t know10
31 Results Consumption – Californian wine Base = Wine drinkers with a preference for Californian wines (n = 96)Respondents that most frequently purchase/consume Californian wine, mainly purchase/consume also Old World wines: Italian (39%), Spanish (31%) and French (29%). Compared to all wine drinkers, regardless of the wine country of their preference, California wine fans less often choose for French wines (29% vs 55%).Among Californian wine fans the most popular New World wine, besides Californian wine, is Australian wine (26%), followed by South African and Chilean wine (23% resp. 22%). With this preference for Australian wines California wine fans differ from the wine drinkers in general, who prefer Chilean and South African over Australian wine.From which other countries have you purchased or consumed wine the past month?Base = all respondents that purchase or consume Californian wine most frequently (n=96). More than one answer possible
32 Results Consumption – Californian wine Base = California wine drinkers (n = 549) (respondents that mention Californian wine as wine they purchased/consumed past month or most frequently)Californian wine drinkers, most frequently purchase/consume wine from the Old World countries, i.e. France (18%), Italy (13%), Spain (9%) and Germany (9%).For 17% of the Californian wine drinkers California is the country they purchase/consume most wine of.Other New World countries are less popular among the Californian wine drinkers: Chile (9%), South Africa (9%) and Australia (7%).Californian wine drinkers almost never drink Argentinian (1%) or New Zealand (0%) wine.From which country is the wine that you purchase or consume most frequently?Base = all respondents that also have purchased or consumed Californian wine in the past month (n=458)
33 Results Consumption – California wine From all Californian wine purchasers/consumers two fifths (39%) purchase or consume wine from California often or regularly. Three fifths (61%) do this only occasionally or rarely.Frequent consumption (often/regularly) is much more prevalent among year olds than among respondents of 60 and older (44% vs 27%).Californian wine consumption almost always takes place in home: 95% mainly consumes it at his own or at a friend’s home and only 5% does this mostly out of home (e.g. in a restaurant or in a café/pub).The out of home consumption of Californian wine is largest in Russia, where 25% of the 12 respondents who often or regularly purchase/consume Californian wine mainly consumes this wine out of home, compared to 5% on average. However, because of the small sample size, this percentage must be interpreted carefully.How often do you purchase or consume Californian wines?Base = all respondents that purchase/consume Californian wines most frequently or have purchased/consumed it in the past month
34 Results PurchaseWine is mostly bought at the supermarket: 28% of the respondents always buys wine at the supermarket, and another 33% mostly at the supermarket and sometimes at a wine shop or liquor store.In Poland respondents buy their wine evenly at the supermarket and at the wine shop/liquor store. Herein they differ from the other countries, where most wine is bought at the supermarket (see appendix 1).A clear preference for the supermarket is biggest in Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands.Women significantly more often buy their wine at the supermarket than men (65% vs 57%), while men more often go to the wine shop/liquor store (23% vs 19%).Place of purchase is the same among respondents that do and that do not drink Californian wine.* This question has not been asked the Swedish respondents, because this country has different laws about selling alcoholic drinks.
35 Results ImageRespondents are asked to rate the wines of different countries on six aspects: value for money, quality, image, price, biological/ecological production, taste.The image of French, Italian and Spain wines is better than that of the New World wines, but they are also seen as more expensive. French wines score highest on all aspects, except on value for money, where Italian wine has the best image.The wines of all countries are rated best on good taste. Only for French wines this aspect comes in second place (8.03), overtaken by its good image (8.25).
36 Results Image* Note: whereas on the other image aspects a higher score is more positive, for ‘are expensive’ a lower score is more positive.
37 Results Image of Californian wine Like the wines of all other countries, Californian wine is rated best on its good taste (7.29).After taste, the overall image of California scores best (7.09), followed by quality (6.99).Lower rates are for ‘offer value for money’ (6.63) and ‘are made biologically/ecologically’ (5.80).Respondents that have purchased or consumed Californian wine in the past month give higher ratings than respondents that have not.Compared to Chilean wines, Californian wines relatively less often get ratings of 8 or higher for value for money (36% vs 46%), while on the aspect ‘expensive’ Californian more often get a high rating (23% vs 13%), implicating that Californian wine is perceived as being expensive (see appendix 1).
38 Results Image of Californian wine Image of Californian wine – comparison between respondents from different countriesCompared to respondents from the other countries, Belgians give the lowest ratings to Californian wines on value for money and biologically/ecologically made.Swiss respondents rate Californian wine relatively high on value for money, quality, image and taste, compared to the ratings they give on average to all wine countries (see appendix 1).Image of Californian wine – compared with wines from other New World countriesCompared to the other New World wines Californian wine is perceived as most expensive, and related to this Californian wines score relatively low on value for money.Californian wine has to share the second place for having a good image with Chile (both 7.09), right after South Africa (7.10).On quality, biologic/ecologic and taste Californian wine scores average, compared to the other New World wines.Image of Californian winesTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECH%Value for money6.636.826.546.516.047.046.626.496.70High quality6.996.946.797.206.817.246.697.06Good Image7.096.987.007.457.087.296.956.65Expensive5.945.715.976.286.645.775.465.986.00Made biologically/ecologically5.85.525.167.305.305.364.885.17Taste good7.187.627.277.476.96
39 Results Image of Californian wine Respondents with a higher frequency of purchasing or consuming Californian wines have a more positive opinion about wines from this country. They especially give higher ratings for taste and value for money.
40 Results Associations with the state California When asked which associations respondents have with the state California a wide range of keywords is mentioned by three quarters of the respondents (74%, n=3261). The most common are grouped below. If no percentage mentioned, the keyword is mentioned by less than 1% of these respondents.Sun (53%)The Rich and Famous (17%)Hollywood (9%)Films (3%)Celebrities 1%)Stars(1%)Actors (1%)FamousGlamorousEntertainmentBeverly HillsProminent peopleBaywatchWine (17%)Wine (7%)Fruit/fruity (2%)Good wines (2%)Grapes (1%)Tasty (1%)Wine productionVineyards (1%)Sweet (1%)Red wineFlavorFull-bodiedLightStrongFreshZinfandelMerlotSpicyWhite wineOtherLos Angeles (4%)Big (3%)Ocean (3%)Freedom (2%)Oranges (2%)Expensive (2%)Silicon Valley (2%)Relaxed (2%)Beautiful (3%)Disney (1%)Expansive (1%)Golden Gate (1%)Gold (1%)Music (1%)Las Vegas/casino (1%)Crowded (1%)Water (1%)Western (1%)Southern (1%)Far away (1%)Cars (1%)Money (1%)Climate/weather (38%)Warm (15%)Heat (12%)Dry (3%)Good climate (3%)Beautiful weather (2%)Climate (2%)Mild climateWeatherHolidays (34%)Beach (14%)Sea (7%)Holidays (4%)Surfing (2%)Palm trees (2%)Summer (1%)Fun (1%)Tourism (1%)Swimming (1%)PartyTropicalBikiniRecreationFree timeExoticLandscape/nature (7%)Beautiful nature (2%)Mountains (1%)Desert (1%)Nature (1%)LandscapeNational parksSandCanyonsValleysNatural disasters (9%)(Forest) fires (4%)Earthquakes (4%)Hurricanes (1%)Natural disastersArnold Schwarzenegger (9%)America (5%)
41 Results Associations with the state California There are differences between respondents from different countries in the associations they have with the state California. E.g. Russians relatively often mention Arnold Schwarzenegger and relatively seldom ‘sun’, although they mention other aspects of the weather often. The association with holiday-related things is highest in Belgium, the association with the Rich and Famous is highest in Denmark. Germans relatively often refer to natural disasters, and the Poles refer relatively often to wine.If you think of the state California, which three characteristics come to your mind?CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=3248n=389n=417n=482n=350n=386n=411n=381n=432%Sun53546447256156Climate/weather38403543513228Holidays34363937212744The rich and famous1713161819915Wine1112262014Arnold Schwarzenegger85107Natural disasters6Landscape/nature4America3
42 Results Associations with Californian wine When asked which associations respondents have with Californian wines a wide range of keywords is mentioned by 45% (n=1997) of the respondents. The most common are grouped below. The answers can be grouped in many different ways; these categories are just one way to get an image of the associations respondents have. If no percentage mentioned, the keyword is mentioned by less than 1% of these respondents.Taste (29%)Fruity (14%)Sour/Acidic (13%)Sweet (12%)Spicy (2%)BerriesWoodyEarthySilkyTanninFlavor/smell (25%)Tasty (7%)Fullness of taste (7%)Good taste (4%)Aromatic (4%)Good flavor (4%)Flavorful (2%)Aftertaste (1%)Bouquet (1%)Smell (1%)Good bouquet (1%)Interesting flavor (1%)Rich bouquetUnique aromaDurable aromaAverage tasteBad tasteInsipidQuality (8%)Quality (4%)Good quality (3%)Bad qualityAverage qualityOtherFresh (5%)Warm (2%)Easy to drink (2%)Not well known (2%)Cabernet Sauvignon (2%)New (2%)Zinfandel (2%)Design/bottle (2%)Clear (1%)Diversity (1%)Rich (1%)Young (1%)Distinctive (1%)Chardonnay (1%)Large/mass production (1%)Delicate (1%)Excellent (1%)Rose (1%)Color (6%)Good color (4%)Dark color (1%)Dark red colorRich colorCharacter/taste (24%)Light (5%)Dry (3%)Strong (3%)Rough (2%)Smooth (2%)Soft (1%)Mature (1%)Subtle (1%)Heavy (1%)Mild (1%)Round (1%)Medium dry (1%)Sparkling (1%)Thin (1%)Ripe (1%)Sun/sun-ripened (13%)Price (16%)Expensive (6%)Fair price (5%)Cheap (4%)Value for money (2%)Not expensive (2%)Price (1%)
43 Results Associations with Californian wine There are differences between respondents from different countries in the associations they have with Californian wines. E.g. Russians and Danes relatively often mention the flavor or smell of the wines and Danes also relatively often make a comment about the character. Dutch more often put the accent on how the wine tastes. Russians relatively often say something about the quality and Danes and Swedes relatively more often mention the price of the wines.Respondents that do not drink Californian wines more often associate these wines with high prices: they more often mention ‘expensive’ and less often ‘fair price’ or ‘value for money’ than Californian wine drinkers (expensive: 7% vs 3%; fair price: 4% vs 7%; value for money: 2% vs 4%).If you think of Californian wines, which three characteristics come to your mind?CountryTotalNLGEPLRUDKSEBECHn=1971n=205n=235n=334n=172n=237n=249n=230n=309%Flavor/smell3319275254431718Taste29382895107Character/taste241431264125Price202211Quality864Color23121
44 Californian wine drinkers Non Californian wine drinkers Results Associations with Californian wineThere are some differences found in the associations Californian wine drinkers mention, in comparison to the respondents that have not consumed Californian wine the past month.Respondents that do not drink Californian wines more often associate these wines with high prices: they more often mention ‘expensive’ and less often ‘fair price’ or ‘value for money’ than Californian wine drinkers.Some positive associations like ‘good’, ‘flavorful’ etc. are mentioned more often by Californian wine drinkers, while the respondents that do not drink these wines more often answer that Californian wines are not well known.If you think of Californian wines, which three characteristics come to your mind?Californian wine drinkersNon Californian wine drinkersn=434n=1531%Fair price74Expensive3Value for money2Cabernet Sauvignon1Easy to drinkFlavorfulFresh8Fruity1813Good116Good quality5NiceNot well knownRefinedRoseStrong
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