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Essential Question: Why is a knowledge of basic statistics helpful in real-world situations?

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Population: The set of all people who can be chosen Sample: The set of people from the population who were actually chosen Example: Identify the population and the sample There are three schedule options for classes at a high school: 90- minute classes every other day for a year, 90-minute classes every day for a semester or 45-minute classes every day for a year. Out of 1200 students, 50 students from each grade level are chosen at random and asked their preference. ▪ Population: ▪ Sample: 1200 students 50 students 4 grades = 200 students

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Types of Data Qualitative – categorical Quantitative – numerical ▪ Discrete – incremental ▪ Continuous – no minimum difference Example 1 The height of each player on a basketball team ▪ The style of shoes worn by each student in a class ▪ The number of people in each household in the US ▪ Quantitative - continuous Qualitative Quantitative - discrete

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Data Displays Frequency – number of times a value appears Relative frequency – frequency / total number of items Example 2/Example 3/Example 4 30 people were asked their favorite flavor of ice cream: 6 vanilla, 12 chocolate, 4 butter pecan, 8 mint chocolate chip. Display as a frequency table, bar graph, and pie chart

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FlavorFrequencyRelative Frequency Vanilla66/30 = 0.2 = 20% Chocolate1212/30 = 0.4 = 40% Butter pecan44/30 ≈ 0.13 ≈ 13% Mint chocolate chip88/30 ≈ 0.27 ≈27%

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Pie Chart Each relative frequency takes a portion of 360˚ ▪ Vanilla: 0.2 ∙ 360˚ = 72˚ ▪ Chocolate: 0.4 ∙ 360˚ = 144˚ ▪ Butter pecan : 0.13 ∙ 360˚ ≈ 47˚ ▪ Mint chocolate chip: 0.27 ∙ 360˚ ≈ 97˚ Chocolate 40% Vanilla 20% Butter Pecan 13% Mint Chocolate Chip 27%

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Displaying Quantitative Data Curve types ▪ Uniform – all values have approximately same frequency ▪ Symmetric – right and left sides are mirror images ▪ Skewed right – right side lower than the left side ▪ Skewed left – left side lower than the right side Skewed means “screwed” Outlier – data far removed from the rest. ▪ Usually the culprit in skewed data

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Example 5 - The shape of data Choose the best determination of data (uniform, symmetric, skewed right, skewed left) ▪ The last digit of each number in the phone book ▪ ▪ The salaries of the employees of a corporation ▪ ▪ The age of retirement for all people in the US ▪ ▪ The height of all adult women in the US ▪ Uniform Skewed right Skewed left Symmetric

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Stem Plot Choose leading digit(s) as stems Arrange stems vertically Last digit is the leaf Provide a key

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31 test scores on an exam 32, 67, 89, 90, 87, 72, 75, 88, 95, 83, 97, 72, 85, 93, 79, 63, 70, 87, 74, 86, 98, 100, 97, 85, 77, 88, 92, 94, 81, 76, |2 = 32

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Assignment Page 851 Problems: ▪ 1 – 9 (all) ▪ 11, 15 ▪ 19 – 24 (all)

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