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1. Urbanization and the Lure of the City 2

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1 1. Urbanization and the Lure of the City 2
1. Urbanization and the Lure of the City 2. City Problems and Machine Politics








9 Urbanization Growth of cities due to industrialization
Labor and markets % Urban population %

10 Changes in Cities Expansion outward Streetcars and transportation
Trolleys, railroads, early subways Commute Beginnings of suburbs, segregated workers by income

11 The ‘Burbs Upper and middle class escape from city life Factors:
Abundant cheap land Cheap transportation Cheap construction Ethnic and racial prejudice Privacy/individual homes

12 Frederick Law Olmstead
1900 – suburbs in every major city World’s first suburban nation

13 Skyscrapers Expansion upward
1885 – Home Insurance in Chicago, first with a steel skeleton (10 stories)

14 Wainwright Building Louis Sullivan – St. Louis (10 stories)

15 Carson Pririe Scott Building
Louis Sullivan, Chicago, (12 stories)

16 ALICO Building Roy Lane, Waco, (22 stories)

17 Private city versus public city
At first, no call for services from government. Cities didn't keep up with the waste, pollution, disease, crime, and other hazards Advocates had to convince citizens and governments to purify water, build sewage systems, waste disposal, police, zoning, etc.

18 City Life Ethnic Neighborhoods Tenements
Culture, newspapers, cuisine, language Tenements Crowded inner-city houses, often one room Up to people/block NYC window law Ventilation shafts Led to rampant disease



21 Water, isolated oat product, salt, chili pepper, onion powder, tomato powder, oats (wheat), soy lecithin, sugar, spices, maltodextrin (a polysaccharide that is absorbed as glucose), soybean oil (anti-dusting agent), garlic powder, autolyzed yeast extract, citric acid, caramel color, cocoa powder, silicon dioxide (anti-caking agent), natural flavors, yeast, modified corn starch, natural smoke flavor, salt, sodium phosphate, less than 2% of beef broth, potassium phosphate, and potassium lactate. All that plus 36% beef. Thirty-six percent—plus all the above making up for the other 64% of the party in your mouth. According to the USDA, they can't call their mixture "beef" at all. Beef is defined by the USDA as "flesh of cattle", and ground beef is defined as: Chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.

22 Machine Politics

23 Campaigns Elections close. Split electoral and popular vote
Congress and President divided Party identity and loyalty

24 Patronage Politics about gaining office, holding office, and providing jobs to faithful Tammany Hall – NYC run by Boss Tweed

25 Issue 1: Civil Service Reform
James Garfield – Beset by job seekers. Charles Guiteau shoots him in the back Pendleton Civil Service Act (1881) – applicants took a test to qualify for jobs Civil servants couldn’t make political contributions

26 Issue 2: Currency To expand or not expand Haves vs. Have nots
Debtors, farmers, entrepreneurs want expansion Bankers, creditors, investors Increase in dollar’s value by 300% Gold standard

27 Greenback Party Money not backed by Specie like in Civil War
Demands for silver money

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