17 Private city versus public city At first, no call for services from government. Cities didn't keep up with the waste, pollution, disease, crime, and other hazardsAdvocates had to convince citizens and governments to purify water, build sewage systems, waste disposal, police, zoning, etc.
18 City Life Ethnic Neighborhoods Tenements Culture, newspapers, cuisine, languageTenementsCrowded inner-city houses, often one roomUp to people/blockNYC window lawVentilation shaftsLed to rampant disease
21 Water, isolated oat product, salt, chili pepper, onion powder, tomato powder, oats (wheat), soy lecithin, sugar, spices, maltodextrin (a polysaccharide that is absorbed as glucose), soybean oil (anti-dusting agent), garlic powder, autolyzed yeast extract, citric acid, caramel color, cocoa powder, silicon dioxide (anti-caking agent), natural flavors, yeast, modified corn starch, natural smoke flavor, salt, sodium phosphate, less than 2% of beef broth, potassium phosphate, and potassium lactate.All that plus 36% beef. Thirty-six percent—plus all the above making up for the other 64% of the party in your mouth.According to the USDA, they can't call their mixture "beef" at all. Beef is defined by the USDA as "flesh of cattle", and ground beef is defined as:Chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as such, shall not contain more than 30 percent fat, and shall not contain added water, phosphates, binders, or extenders.
23 Campaigns Elections close. Split electoral and popular vote Congress and President dividedParty identity and loyalty
24 PatronagePolitics about gaining office, holding office, and providing jobs to faithfulTammany Hall – NYC run by Boss Tweed
25 Issue 1: Civil Service Reform James Garfield – Beset by job seekers. Charles Guiteau shoots him in the backPendleton Civil Service Act (1881) – applicants took a test to qualify for jobsCivil servants couldn’t make political contributions
26 Issue 2: Currency To expand or not expand Haves vs. Have nots Debtors, farmers, entrepreneurs want expansionBankers, creditors, investorsIncrease in dollar’s value by 300%Gold standard
27 Greenback Party Money not backed by Specie like in Civil War Demands for silver money