1000-1300 AD Crusades or Holy Wars took place b/w the Muslims and Christians Moors (Muslims) invaded Spain which was a Christian country.
Marco Polo (1295) returns from the Far East News of riches in Far East: a.silk - soft vs. wool’s rough & smell b.drugs – opium c.perfumes - hide body odor d.tapestry - adorn walls of castles e. spices - especially sugar - used to preserve and flavor foods.
Marco Polo obtained & carried items overland through Muslim’s territory who charged toll. This made the end price expensive (only royalty could afford & Muslims wealthy)
Europeans - can’t sail south along coast of Africa & return against prevailing winds. 1450 - caravel invented - ship that could sail closer to the wind. Impact - exposed to Africa’s gold and slave trade.
Africans/Arabs - flesh markets increase $ if slave was from distant land (slave less likely to be rescued/escape--didn’t know language/terrain. Indirect impact: fosters extension of regional African culture & tribal identities. Over 28 Million Africans have been enslaved over the Muslim world over the past 14 centuries
Portuguese: Est. sugar plantations on various islands off coast of Africa Created demand for slave labor. Explorers: Bartholomeu Diaz (1488) - explored & rounded horn of Africa. Vasco da Gama (1498) - explored east coast of Africa to India.
Age of Renaissance: (exploration flourished) a. compass invented - better maps using concept of lat. & long. b. printing press invented – better communication
c. improvements in naval architecture – Prince Henry “the Navigator” of Portugal - hull of ships got bigger - carry more supplies/water.
Spain: Marriage of Ferdinand (Aragon) and Isabella (Castile): Created single national state when the Moors/Muslim were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula
Columbus (Ita) - contracted with Isabella to find alternate route to the Far East: a. Admiral b. land claimed for Spain c. Columbus gets to keep 10% d. 100 soldiers (stake claim) e. 3 ships (Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria) Sails west, sites land October 12, 1492 (San Salvador/Bahamas)
Stage is Now Set: Europe - markets, capital, and technology Africa - slave labor N Am - raw materials (precious metals & soil for sugar cultivation)
Colombian Exchange see chart p. 15 Old World Offered: animals (cattle, swine, horse) seeds (bluegrass, dandelion, daisies) disease (small pox, malaria, yellow fever) New World Offered: animals (buffalo, iguana, rattlesnakes) plants (tobacco, corn, beans, tomatoes, potatoes) disease (syphilis) raw materials
New World Divided - Treaty of Tordesaillas (1494) - divides New World in a civilized manner - Pope draws line.
Spanish Conquistadors: (7 original) 1513 - Vasco Balboa - Panama; Pacific Ocean 1513/21 - Juan Ponce de Leon - Florida; myth of fountain of youth 1519- Ferdinand Magellan - Straits of Magellan S Am.; credit for sailing 1st around the world
1519- Hernan Cortes - Mexico/Aztecs; fights Montezuma; known for creating mestizos (1/2 Indian; 1/2 European) 1532- Francisco Pizarro - Peru/Incas
1539/42- Hernandez de Soto - Florida, Mississippi & Ark Rivers 1540/42- Francisco Coronado - TX/Arizona/NM/Kansas & discovered the Grand Canyon/Colo. River
Black Legend - false concept that all conquers: a. tortured b. butchered (killing for Christ) c. stole gold d. spread disease e. left only misery behind.
Reality of the Black Legend: a. some of the above legend was done b. erected colossal empire (CA to Fla. south to Tierra del Fuego) c. blended culture, laws, religion and language.
1542- Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo - CA coastline 1565- Established fort at St. Augustine, Fla. to keep French from settling in the area 1598- Don Juan de Onate - abused Pueblos/NM 1769- Father Junipero Serra - San Diego; set up 21 chain missions along CA coast
English Explorer: 1497/98- Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) - NE coast of N Am (sailed north)
French Explorers: 1524 - Giovanni de Verrazano - East coast of N Am. 1534 - Jacques Cartier - St. Lawrence River 1680s- Robert de la Salle - down Miss River
Looking Back: Earth was formed as a single continent Early Americans relied on 3-sister farming European Influence: Norse, Crusades, Renaissance – Inventions & Columbus Explorers of the New World Spanish Conquistadores English French