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1 The chiral magnetic effect: from quark-gluon plasma to Dirac semimetals D. Kharzeev High Energy Physics in the LHC Era, Valparaiso, Chile, 2012 “Quarks – 2014”, Suzdal, Russia, 2-8 June, 2014

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What is Chiral Magnetic Effect? 2 Chirality imbalance + Magnetic field = Electric current Talks at “Quarks 2014”: V. Braguta, T. Kalaydzhyan, A. Kotov

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Quantum anomalies 3 Anomalies: The classical symmetry of the Lagrangian is broken by quantum effects - examples: chiral symmetry - axial anomaly scale symmetry - scale anomaly Anomalies imply correlations between currents: e.g. decay A V V if A, V are background fields, V is not conserved!

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Quantum anomalies 4 A In classical background fields (E and B), chiral anomaly induces a collective motion in the Dirac sea

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Chiral Magnetic Effect in a chirally imbalanced plasma Fukushima, DK, Warringa, PRD‘08 In the presence of the chiral chemical potential and in magnetic field, the vector e.m. current is not conserved: Compute the current through The result: Coefficient is fixed by the axial anomaly, no corrections 5

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Some of the earlier work on P-odd currents 6 Vilenkin ’78 Eliashberg ’83 Rubakov, Tavkhelidze, ‘85 Levitov, Nazarov, Eliashberg ’85 Wilczek ‘87 Alekseev, Cheianov, Frohlich ‘98 Joyce, Shaposhnikov ‘97 … Review: DK, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 2014

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Chiral magnetic conductivity: discrete symmetries 7 P-even T-odd P-odd T-odd P-odd effect! T- even Non-dissipative current! (quantum computing etc) cf Ohmic conductivity: P-even, T-odd, dissipative

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Systematics of anomalous conductivities 8 Vector current Axial current Magnetic fieldVorticity

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46 Heavy ion collisions as a source of the strongest magnetic fields available in the Laboratory DK, McLerran, Warringa, Nucl Phys A803(2008)227

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47 Heavy ion collisions: the strongest magnetic field ever achieved in the laboratory

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46 Magnetic fields in heavy ion collisions In a conducting plasma, Faraday induction can make the field long-lived K.Tuchin, arXiv:1006.3051, 1305.5806 U.Gursoy, DK, K. Rajagopal, arXiv:1401.3805 L.McLerran,V.Skokov arXiv:1305.0774

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46 Magnetic fields in heavy ion collisions U.Gursoy, DK, K. Rajagopal, arXiv:1401.3805 Observable effects on directed flow of charged hadrons: Faraday Faraday + Hall

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“Numerical evidence for chiral magnetic effect in lattice gauge theory”, P. Buividovich, M. Chernodub, E. Luschevskaya, M. Polikarpov, ArXiv 0907.0494; PRD SU(2) quenched, Q = 3; Electric charge density (H) - Electric charge density (H=0) Red - positive charge Blue - negative charge

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“Chiral magnetic effect in 2+1 flavor QCD+QED”, M. Abramczyk, T. Blum, G. Petropoulos, R. Zhou, ArXiv 0911.1348; 2+1 flavor Domain Wall Fermions, fixed topological sectors, 16^3 x 8 lattice Red - positive charge Blue - negative charge

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Electric dipole moment of QCD instanton in an external magnetic field 15 G. Basar, G. Dunne, DK, arXiv:1112.0532 [hep-th] Topological charge density Quark zero mode density Asymmetry between left and right modes induces the e.d.m. in an external B B=0 B>0

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16 Arxiv:1401.4141

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17 No sign problem for the chiral chemical potential - direct lattice studies are possible Fukushima, DK, Warringa, PRD‘08

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18 arXiv:1105.0385, PRL + Talks by V. Braguta and A. Kotov

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The Chern-Simons diffusion rate in an external magnetic field 19 G. Basar, DK, Phys Rev D, arXiv:1202.2161 strongly coupled N=4 SYM plasma in an external U(1) R magnetic field through holography weak field: strong field increases the rate: dimensional reduction

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Holographic chiral magnetic effect: the strong coupling regime (AdS/CFT) H.-U. Yee, arXiv:0908.4189, JHEP 0911:085, 2009; V. Rubakov, arXiv:1005.1888,... A. Rebhan, A.Schmitt, S.Stricker JHEP 0905, 084 (2009), G.Lifshytz, M.Lippert, arXiv:0904.4772;.A. Gorsky, P. Kopnin, A. Zayakin, arXiv:1003.2293, T. Kalaydzhyan, I. Kirsch ‘11,.. CME persists at strong coupling - hydrodynamical formulation? D.K., H. Warringa Phys Rev D80 (2009) 034028 Strong coupling Weak coupling

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Hydrodynamics and anomalies Hydrodynamics: an effective low-energy TOE. States that the response of the fluid to slowly varying perturbations is completely determined by conservation laws (energy, momentum, charge,...) Conservation laws are a consequence of symmetries of the underlying theory What happens to hydrodynamics when these symmetries are broken by quantum effects (anomalies of QCD and QED)? 21

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Chiral MagnetoHydroDynamics (CMHD) - relativistic hydrodynamics with triangle anomalies and external electromagnetic fields 22 First order (in the derivative expansion) formulation: D. Son and P. Surowka, arXiv:0906.5044 Constraining the new anomalous transport coefficients: positivity of the entropy production rate, CME (for chirally imbalanced matter)

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Chiral MagnetoHydroDynamics (CMHD) - relativistic hydrodynamics with triangle anomalies and external electromagnetic fields 23 First order hydrodynamics has problems with causality and is numerically unstable, so second order formulation is necessary; Complete second order formulation of CMHD with anomaly: DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360; Phys Rev D Many new transport coefficients - use conformal/Weyl invariance; still 18 independent transport coefficients related to the anomaly. 15 that are specific to 2nd order: new Many new anomaly-induced phenomena!

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Chiral MagnetoHydroDynamics (CMHD) - relativistic hydrodynamics with triangle anomalies and external electromagnetic fields 24 DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360 Positivity of entropy production - still too many unconstrained transport coefficients... Is there another guiding principle?

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No entropy production from T-even anomalous terms 25 P-even T-odd P-odd T-odd P-odd effect! T- even Non-dissipative current! (time-reversible - no arrow of time, no entropy production) cf Ohmic conductivity: T-odd, dissipative DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360

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No entropy production from P-odd anomalous terms 26 DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360 Mirror reflection: entropy decreases ? Decrease is ruled out by 2nd law of thermodynamics Entropy grows

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No entropy production from T-even anomalous terms 27 1st order hydro: Son-Surowka results are reproduced 2nd order hydro: 13 out of 18 transport coefficients are computed; but is the “guiding principle” correct? Can we check the resulting relations between the transport coefficients? e.g. DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360

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The fluid/gravity correspondence 28 DK and H.-U. Yee, 1105.6360 Long history: Hawking, Bekenstein, Unruh; Damour ’78; Thorne, Price, MacDonald ’86 (membrane paradigm) Recent developments motivated by AdS/CFT: Policastro, Kovtun, Son, Starinets ’01 (quantum bound) Bhattacharya, Hubeny, Minwalla, Rangamani ’08 (fluid/gravity correspondence) Some of the transport coefficients of 2nd order hydro computed; enough to check some of our relations, e.g. J. Erdmenger et al, 0809.2488; N. Banerjee et al, 0809.2596 It works Other holographic checks work as well:

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The chiral magnetic current is non-dissipative: protected from (local) scattering and dissipation by (global) topology Somewhat similar to superconductivity, but can exist at high temperature! Anomalous transport coefficients in hydrodynamics describe dissipation- free processes (unlike e.g. shear viscosity) 29

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DK, H.-U. Yee, arXiv:1012.6026 [hep-th]; PRD The CME in relativistic hydrodynamics: The Chiral Magnetic Wave 30 Propagating chiral wave: (if chiral symmetry is restored) Gapless collective mode is the carrier of CME current in MHD: CME Chiral separation Electri c Chiral

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The Chiral Magnetic Wave 31 DK, H.-U. Yee, arXiv:1012.6026 [hep-th], PRD The velocity of CMW computed in Sakai- Sugimoto model (holographic QCD) In strong magnetic field, CMW propagates with the speed of light! Chiral Electri c

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32 Testing the Chiral Magnetic Wave Y.Burnier, DK, J.Liao, H.Yee, PRL 2011 Finite baryon density + CMW = electric quadrupole moment of QGP. Signature - difference of elliptic flows of positive and negative pions determined by total charge asymmetry of the event A: at A>0, v 2 (-) > v 2 (+); at A v 2 (-)

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33 G. Wang et al [STAR Coll], arxiv:1210.5498 [nucl-ex] Testing the CMW at RHIC

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34 CME @ Quark Matter 2014: ALICE Coll, Talk by R.Belmont ALICE Coll. at the LHC

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35 CME @ Quark Matter 2014: STAR Coll, Talk by Q-Y Shou ALICE Coll, Talk by R.Belmont

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36 Exciting the CMW by electromagnetic fields M.Stephanov, H.-U.Yee, arxiv:1304.6410 The first numerical simulation of CMHD! M.Hongo, Y.Hirono, T.Hirano, arxiv: 1309.2823

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Dirac and Weyl semimetals

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The discovery of Dirac semimetals – 3D chiral materials Z.K.Liu et al., Science 343 p.864 (Feb 21, 2014)

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The discovery of Dirac semimetals – 3D chiral materials Z.K.Liu et al., Science 343 p.864 (Feb 21, 2014) Ongoing experimental studies of the Chiral Magnetic Effect

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Chiral electronics 40 quantum amplifier - sensor of ultra- weak magnetic field DK, H.-U.Yee, Phys.Rev.B 88(2013) 115119 Dirac semimetal The Kirchhoff’s law for this circuit possesses an instability

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Summary Interplay of topology, anomalies and magnetic field leads to the Chiral Magnetic Effect; confirmed by lattice QCD x QED, evidence from RHIC and LHC CME and related anomaly-induced phenomena are an integral part of relativistic hydrodynamics (Chiral MagnetoHydroDynamics) Ongoing experimental studies of CME in Dirac semimetals; potential applications

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The Chern-Simons diffusion rate in an external magnetic field 42 G. Basar, DK, arXiv:1202.2161 (PRD’12) strongly coupled N=4 SYM plasma in an external U(1) R magnetic field through holography Dual geometry: Constant magnetic flux in x 3 direction: start with a general 5D metric and look for asymptotically AdS 5 solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with a horizon solutions interpolate between BTZ black hole x T 2 (small r) and AdS 5 (large r) RG flow from D=3+1 CFT at short distances, and D=1+1 CFT at large distances E.D’Hoker, P.Krauss, arXiv:0908.3875

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