Something Fishy this Way Comes: The How and Why of Garum Lori Kissell
Garum What is it? How is it made? Where/how is it traded? How is it used? Modern equivalents/descendants?
Garum – what is it? OLD: garum, -i (n) a highly esteemed fish sauce, prepared originally from the garos (unknown fish) but later chiefly from the scomber or mackerel
Garum – what is it? OLD: liquamen, -inis (n) [liquo + -men] a liquid fluid; (Spec., prob.) fish-sauce (garum) OLD: muria, -ae (f) also muries, -ei [dub] – brine used for pickling
Garum – what is it? OLD: muriaticus, -a, -um – soaked in brine, pickled, (Neut. Pl as sb) pickled fish
Garum – what is it? Cited by everyone! Varro Horace Celsius Seneca Petronius Pliny the Elder Sextus Pompeius Festus Martial Ulpius Columella Cato Persius Quintilian Fabius Pictor CIL 15.4709 & 4.2592
Garum – how is it made? Traditional: fish + sunshine + time = garum Whole fish or offal only Fatty fish (oily) preferred Outdoors, then store in cool, dry place
Garum – how is it made? Non-traditional: boil it first To strain or not strain? Store in fridge
Garum – how is it made? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPX8dpKG4 8Mhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPX8dpKG4 8M in which a German foodie tries his hand at garum garum.umwblogs.org garum.umwblogs.org is a student project conducted over three months which documents with reports and pictures the beginnings of the liquefaction process
Garum – how is it made? Recipes vary – all include fish and salt, but additional flavorings vary widely Herbs, vinegar, honey, fish used all change the flavor Favorite fish? Mackerel, sardines, anchovies, tunny, tuna or various combinations Herbs? Parsley, garlic, pepper or local variations
Garum – how is it made? Leave in sun one to three months, strain, store Edible, but pungent, in one year Five years – not so bad Ten years – really nice!
Garum –where/ how is it traded? Must have: Source of Fish Mediterranean not rich in fish Must have: Good water supply Famous locations – Pompeii, Carthage, Lusitania, Baetican Spain, Clazomenae, Leptis Magna, Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Brittany, Black Sea region
Garum – where/how is it traded? Transported in amphorae Distinctive styles can source the garum Barrels used, but little evidence remains
Dressel 1to 6: wine amphoras Dressel 1: Roman wine amphora, 129 B.C. to 13 A.D. Dressel 2: Roman wine amphora, 16 B.C. to 29 A.D. Dressel 3: Roman wine amphora, 28 to 146 A.D. Dressel 4: Roman wine amphora, 4 B.C. to 24 A.D. Dressel 5: Roman wine amphora, 12 B.C.. - holotype Dressel 6: Roman wine amphora, 36 A.D.- holotype Dressel 7,8,9,10,11: betic amphoras for salted fish (Hispanic) Dressel 8: 1st front century J.C. Dressel 12: betic amphora for salted fish (Andalusia) Dressel 13,14,15: betic amphoras for salted fish Dressel 20: oil amphora, betic, 2nd-3rd century A.D. Dressel 26,27: 3rd century A.D. and later