Presentation on theme: "Ancient, Mysterious, & Exotic. What are your favorite foods? What flavors make them special? What would your favorite foods taste like without spices,"— Presentation transcript:
Ancient, Mysterious, & Exotic
What are your favorite foods? What flavors make them special? What would your favorite foods taste like without spices, seasonings, or herbs?
Spices and herbs have played a dramatic role in the development of Western Civilization as we will learn. Today, spices and herbs are used mostly as flavorings for foods and occasionally as medicines. In ancient and medieval times, spices and herbs were rare and precious products, used for medicine, perfume, incense, flavorings, beauty treatments, and currency.
For centuries, Arabs controlled the trading of spices from the Far East. The earliest recorded use of a spice (sesame) was noted in an Assyrian mythology The first real evidence of spice use came from the writings and artwork of early civilizations Hieroglyphs in the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt show workers eating garlic and onions for strength. In 1453 BC, the first Greek Olympians wore garlands of bay leaves and parsley. In 400 BC Hippocrates listed more than 400 herbs and spices for medical use, half of which are still used today
During this period, the Romans controlled the Spice Trade. At the time, it was a great and dangerous 2 year voyage on the sea to sail from Egypt to India to gather pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and ginger. Until, a Greek merchant sailor, Hippalus, noticed that the changing winds could be used to shorten the voyage to less than a year
Europeans explore passages to the East Indies Late 13 th century, Marco Polo’s exploration of Asia establishes Venice as the most important trade port in the world By 1498 the Portuguese & Spanish began searching for their own spice producing lands Shortly after, Vasco de Gama (Port.) sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, Africa to reach Calcutta, India, returning with pepper, cinnamon, jewels, and trade deals with Indian princes. In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue and brought back allspice, vanilla, and red peppers from the West Indies for Spain.
WAR! Spain, Portugal, England, & Holland fight for control of the spice trade In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan (Spain) sails west around the world. One of his ships returns with enough pepper and spices to deem it a financial success despite the loss of 4 ships & crews and the death of Magellan By 1608, the Dutch had gained control of the cinnamon spice trade, and by 1663 they established exclusive trading rights fro pepper with Western India
Around 1600, the English began to take control of the trade routes to India In 1780, the Dutch and English go to war over the spice trade routes. England is victorious and destroys the Dutch hold on the spice trade. By 1799, the Dutch had lost all of their spice trading centers
By 1672, Americans enter the spice trade. Boston born, Elihu Yale begins his own spice trading business, making a fortune, and starts a university, Yale. In 1835, Texan settlers develop chili powder In 1889, food researchers in Watsonville, CA developed the techniques for dehydrating onions and garlic.
Spices are the various strong flavored or aromatic substances of vegetable origin, commonly used as condiments or employed for other purposes on account of their fragrance and preservation qualities
Spices have 2 main components: 1- Volatile Oils (essential oils) which are responsible for the characteristic aroma of spices 2- Oleoresins (non-volatile extracts) which are responsible for the typical taste and flavor of spices
Colors should be vibrant Aroma should be pleasant Purchase small amounts at a time to ensure freshness Cut or powdered spices have more surface area exposed to air, so they lose their flavor more rapidly Store spices and herbs in cool, dry places away from exposure to light, heat, moisture, and oxygen Avoid storage that is too close to cooking ranges, ovens, dishwasher, or refrigerator. Store herbs and spices in airtight containers to help protect them from moisture and preserve the oils that give them their flavor and aroma
Leaves & Flowers Whole 1 year Ground 6 months Seeds and Bark Whole 2 years Ground 6 months Roots Whole 2 years Ground 6 months
LIGHT: color pigments are photosensitive and oxidize in light HUMIDITY: dry spices tend to attract water and mold OXYGEN: essential oils oxidize, especially at high temperatures
1. What spices were shown on the hieroglyphs in the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt? 2. Which famous American university was funded from the financial success of the spice trade? 3. What state was chili powder developed in? 4. What was the preservation technique for onions and garlic that was developed in Watsonville, CA? 5. What are the 3 factors that affect the quality of stored spices?
1. Garlic & Onions 2. Yale 3. Texas 4. Dehydration 5. Light, humidity, and oxygen Scoring : 5 : Caliente! Your Hot, Spice master! 3-4: Medium spicy 1-2: Mild spice. Add a little bit more BAM! Don’t be afraid to “Kick it up a notch!”