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OHCE Statewide Leader Training July, 2014 Developed by Barbara Brown, Ph.D., R.D./L.D., Food Specialist, OCES Tenderness: How to Cook Meat.

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Presentation on theme: "OHCE Statewide Leader Training July, 2014 Developed by Barbara Brown, Ph.D., R.D./L.D., Food Specialist, OCES Tenderness: How to Cook Meat."— Presentation transcript:

1 OHCE Statewide Leader Training July, 2014 Developed by Barbara Brown, Ph.D., R.D./L.D., Food Specialist, OCES Tenderness: How to Cook Meat

2 What’s changing 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 2 Animals Cuts Fat content Grain vs grass fed Grades available where you shop

3 USDA Quality Grades 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 3 A composite evaluation of factors that affect palatability of meat (tenderness, juiciness, flavor) Factors include carcass maturity, firmness, texture, color of lean, amount and distribution of marbling within the lean Beef carcass quality grading is based on (1) degree of marbling and (2) degree of maturity

4 Meat composition 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 4 Bone—If present can be used to identify part of the animal the meat cut is from Muscle tissue—tightens when heated Connective tissue—more in highly exercised parts of bodies (legs), older animals (mutton vs lamb)—more connective tissue = tougher meat Collagen Membranes between muscle fibers and gristle at ends of bones are made of collagen Readily softens with moist heat, converts to gelatin Elastin Tendons made of elastin Not softened by cooking

5 Meat composition 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 5 Fatty tissue Most is deposited under skin, around glandular organs first As fat continues to be deposited it will be found between & within the muscle tissues (marbling) Melts when heated Water—squeezed out when cooked Pigments Myoglobin –responsible for red color, more = darker meat Carries O 2 & CO 2, bright red when exposed to O 2, bluish when not When old—brownish-red

6 Effects of heat 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 6 Tenderizes Cooking to correct endpoint tenderizes collagen connective tissues Overcooking yields tough, rubbery, stringy, dry, excessive shrinkage of protein with loss of water from muscle fibers, collagen converted to gelatin so fibers no longer adhere to each other (strings) Toughens muscle fiber Moisture lost (drip, evaporation) Fat lost (melt out, combines with water loss to impact juiciness)

7 Effects of heat on meat 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 7 Flavor develops Pigments change—When cooked myoglobin turns greyish-brown Destroys pathogens For whole cuts of beef and pork bacteria are only on the outside, so it is safe to cook the rare stage, not true for ground meats

8 Methods of heat transfer 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 8 Conduction: direct transfer of heat by contact from one substance to another Convection: transfer of energy in a fluid (such as a gas or liquid) Radiation: transfer of energy through empty space (infrared waves)

9 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 9 Cooking methodMethod of heat transfer Roast/Bake Radiation, convection Broiling Radiation Boiling, steaming, frying, simmering, poaching, stewing Conduction (from fluid) Conduction (of fluid) Braising Conduction (from fluid & from vessel) Convection (not usually an issue because the small amount of liquid exists is usually very dense a& therefore doesn’t circulate) Microwave Radiation

10 Cooking method chosen depends on 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 10 Natural tenderness of the meat cut (type of meat, age of animal, cut, tenderizing treatments) Amount and type of connective tissue Leanness of the meat Size and thickness of the cut of meat

11 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 11 Wholesale meat cuts

12 Cooking methods 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 12 Dry heat No liquid, but can use fat or oil; use for tender or medium-tender cuts Moist heat From highly exercised, less tender parts of animals and older animals Cuts have high content of meat extractives that provide flavor, higher in collagen Methods combining moist & dry heat

13 Dry heat methods 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 13 Roasting Grilling (broiling) Fan-grilling Pan-grilling Pan-frying (shallow frying) Sautéing Stir-frying Deep-frying

14 Moist heat methods 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 14 Braising Pot-roasting Stewing or Casseroling Simmering Poaching Pressure Cooking

15 Combination methods: dry & moist 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 15 Microwave Cookery Gives different results from conventional cooking methods and it is not always a time saver. Generally, meat cooks better, and more evenly, at lower power settings. Size and shape of the meat cut affect evenness of cooking and the time required. Covered Roasting Meat is enclosed, either in an oven-bag or covered roasting pan, trapping some steam, and cooked in the oven Variation is fry pan "roasting", cuts are first browned in a hot fry pan, heat is reduced, lid put on, and cooking is completed

16 Chemical tenderization 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 16 Proteolytic enzymes (protein-splitting enzymes) Papain (papaya), bromelain (pineapple), actinidin (kiwifruit) Reason why you can’t use these fruits fresh in gelatin Acids in marinades (vinegar, citrus, wine) Acids act mainly on the surface, if left too long the surface becomes mushy With no acid ingredient marinades only add flavor

17 Physical tenderization 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 17 Grinding, mincing, chopping Pounding Cutting or needling

18 The “searing myth” 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 18 Meat is cooked at a high temperature so a caramelized crust forms Does: develop a flavorful crust Does not: seal in flavors or juices

19 Doneness…why it matters 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 19 Undercooking Safety issues Underdeveloped flavor Raw texture Overcooking yields tough, rubbery, stringy, dry, excessive shrinkage of protein with loss of water from muscle fibers, collagen converted to gelatin so fibers no longer adhere to each other (strings) Avoid hockey puck quality

20 Beef steak doneness by color Best option to determine doneness…. A thermometer Cooking to less well For whole cuts bacteria is on the outside, not center so can cook to rare stage, not true for ground 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 20

21 Determining doneness 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 21 Only one sure method You can’t tell when meat is safely cooked by appearance Any cooked, uncured red meats – including pork – can be pink, even when meat has reached a safe internal temperature

22 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 22 CategoryFood Temp (°F) Temp (°F) Rest Time Rest Time Ground Meat & Meat Mixtures Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb160None Turkey, Chicken165None Fresh Beef, Veal, Lamb Steaks, roasts, chops1453 minutes Poultry Chicken & Turkey, whole165None Poultry breasts, roasts165None Poultry thighs, legs, wings165None Duck & Goose165None Stuffing (cooked alone or in bird) 165None Pork and Ham Fresh pork1453 minutes Fresh ham (raw)1453 minutes Precooked ham (to reheat)140None

23 Endpoint temperatures, food safety and resting time 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 23 During rest time, internal temperature remains constant or continues to rise, which destroys harmful microorganisms

24 Resting time 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 24 When meat is removed from heat, it needs to rest Allows juices to equalize throughout the meat, less lost when cut Tent with foil to keep the meat warm Resting time for particular cuts vary Usually between 3 and 20 minutes

25 Resting and juiciness Without restRested 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 25 Source: http://www.seriouseats.com/2009/12/how-to-have-juicy-meats-steaks-the-food-lab-the-importance-of-resting-grilling.html

26 Putting it tenderly together 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 26 Choose the animal (type of meat) Choose the cut Choose the cooking method Dry heat Give cross-over cuts some help (physical tenderization, chemical tenderization) Moist heat + time Combo method Know when it’s done Food safety first Preference second Let it rest

27 Resources 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 27 USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/home http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/home http://www.beefitswhatsfordinner.com/ http://www.porkbeinspired.com/index.aspx http://www.eatchicken.com/

28 2014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service 28


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