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Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

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1 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups
Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

2 Stocks Chapter 6. 1

3 The basics of a Stock There are four essential parts to all stocks:
A major flavoring ingredient A liquid, most often water Mirepoix Aromatics

4 The Basics of a Stock: Aromatics
Bouquet Garni Sache d’epecies Small bag of cheesecloth that contains herbs and spices “Bundle of Herbs” in French; typically bay leaf, parsley, thyme

5 The Basics of a Stock: Mirepoix
Consists of : Celery Carrots Onions Percentage of each ingredient 50% onions 25% celery 25% carrots

6 Types of Stock A stock is a flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables. Stocks are often called the chef’s “building blocks.” They form the base for many soups and sauces. There are many types of stock: White stock, brown stock, fumet, court bouillon, glace, remouillage, bouillon, jus, and vegetable stock To use bones for stock, you must first cut them to the right size and then prepare them by blanching, browning, or sweating.

7 Types of Stock White Stock Brown Stock
Blanching the vegetables prior to cooking Can also be made with chicken, veal, and beef bones Roast bones before cooking Roast with a mirepoix for more flavor Any tomato product is used

8 Types of Stocks Fumet Court Boullion
A flavorful stock that is added to soups and sauces too add flavor Fish fumet Translates to “briefly boiled” Serves as the base for a stock or soup Other aromatics are added

9 Types of Stocks Glace Remouillage
Made or finished to have a smooth, glossy surface EX: demi-glace which is a rich, reduced brown stock Weak stock made by resimmering bones that have already been used to make a stock

10 Types of Stocks Boullion Jus A broth
Comes from the word bouillier which means boil Jus means juice American usage is a light sauce for beef products French usage is a natural way to enhance dishes

11 Types of Stocks Vegetable Stock Made from the use of vegetables
Mirepoix Peppers Mushrooms Customizable

12 Preparing a Stock Blanching the bones rids them of some of the impurities that can cause cloudiness in a stock. To brown bones, roast them in a hot (400°F) oven for about an hour, until they are golden brown. Sweating causes bone and mirepoix to release flavor more quickly when liquid is added. Flavor, color, body, and clarity determine the quality of stock. A stock should be flavorful, but not so strong that it overpowers the other ingredients in the finished dish. To make stock, the ratio of liquid to flavoring ingredients is standard.  Follow proper food safety practices when cooling stock to minimize the time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone.

13 Degreasing a Stock Gives the stock a clearer and purer color.
Degreasing is the process of removing fat that has cooled and hardened from the surface of the stock. Gives the stock a clearer and purer color. Removes some of the fat content, making the stock more healthful. Degrease stock by skimming, scraping, or lifting hard fat.

14 Sauces Chapter 6 Section 2

15 Grand Sauces A sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used for preparing other foods Adds flavor, moisture, and visual appeal Grand Sauces are referred to as “Mother Sauces” 5 classical grand sauces that are used to make other sauces Béchamel: Made from milk and white roux Velouté: Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blonde roux Brown or Espagnole sauce: Made from brown stock and brown roux Tomato sauce: Made from a stock and tomatoes Hollandaise: This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon

16 Grand Sauces Béchamel Velouté

17 Grand Sauces Brown/ Espangole Tomato
Straining tomatoes for a stock with a cheesecloth to remove skins and seeds is called a tomato concase

18 Grand Sauce Hollandaise

19 A key ingredient in sauce that adds richness and body
Thickeners A key ingredient in sauce that adds richness and body

20 Thickeners- Roux Made of equal parts cooked flour and fat
Such as clarified butter, oil, or shortening

21 Thickener- Beurre Manie
Made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter

22 Thickeners- Slurry Cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid
Can be used instead of a roux

23 Thickeners- Liaison Mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream
Often used to finish some sauces

24 Preparing Different Kinds of Sauces
Compound Butter- mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients Herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetables Coulis- thick pureed sauce Salsa- cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetables Sauces for meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish Jus-lie- made from the juices from cooked meat and brown stock Easiest way to strain a sauce- wringing method Using cheesecloth over a bowl to catch impurities

25 Soups Chapter 6 Section 3

26 Basic Kinds of Soups Clear Soups Thick Soups
Flavored stocks, broths, and consommés EX: Minestrone Thick Soups Ice cream soups Puree soups EX: Bisques, chowders, cream of tomato, lentil, and split pea soup Variations on these basic soups Desert soups Fruit soups Cold Soups Traditional regional soups (clam chowder)

27 Preparing Soups Most soups are cooked at a gentle simmer and stirred occasionally. Finishing techniques are important when preparing soup for service. Soups should also be garnished just before service. Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups. Broth is made from a combination of water; vegetables; beef, fish, chicken, or veal; mirepoix; and bouquet garni. One type of clear soup is consommé. This is a rich, flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.

28 Preparing Soups Cont. There are two kinds of thick soup—cream soups and purée soups. Cream soups are usually thickened with an added starch, such as roux Cream soups should NEVER be seasoned Chowders are hearty, thick soups made in much the same way as cream soups. Bisque is a cream soup usually made from puréed shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab. Purée soups are thickened by the starch found in the puréed main ingredient, such as potatoes.

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