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Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups. Stocks Chapter 6. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups. Stocks Chapter 6. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

2 Stocks Chapter 6. 1

3 The basics of a Stock There are four essential parts to all stocks: There are four essential parts to all stocks: A major flavoring ingredient A major flavoring ingredient A liquid, most often water A liquid, most often water Mirepoix Mirepoix Aromatics Aromatics

4 The Basics of a Stock: Aromatics Bouquet Garni Sache d’epecies Small bag of cheesecloth that contains herbs and spices “Bundle of Herbs” in French; typically bay leaf, parsley, thyme

5 The Basics of a Stock: Mirepoix Consists of :Consists of : CeleryCelery CarrotsCarrots OnionsOnions Percentage of each ingredientPercentage of each ingredient 50% onions50% onions 25% celery25% celery 25% carrots25% carrots

6 Types of Stock Stocks are often called the chef’s “building blocks.” They form the base for many soups and sauces. Stocks are often called the chef’s “building blocks.” They form the base for many soups and sauces. There are many types of stock: There are many types of stock: White stock, brown stock, fumet, court bouillon, glace, remouillage, bouillon, jus, and vegetable stock White stock, brown stock, fumet, court bouillon, glace, remouillage, bouillon, jus, and vegetable stock To use bones for stock, you must first cut them to the right size and then prepare them by blanching, browning, or sweating. To use bones for stock, you must first cut them to the right size and then prepare them by blanching, browning, or sweating. A stock is a flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables.

7 Types of Stock White Stock Blanching the vegetables prior to cookingBlanching the vegetables prior to cooking Can also be made with chicken, veal, and beef bonesCan also be made with chicken, veal, and beef bones Brown Stock Roast bones before cookingRoast bones before cooking Roast with a mirepoix for more flavorRoast with a mirepoix for more flavor Any tomato product is usedAny tomato product is used

8 Types of Stocks Fumet A flavorful stock that is added to soups and sauces too add flavorA flavorful stock that is added to soups and sauces too add flavor Fish fumet Court Boullion Translates to “briefly boiled”Translates to “briefly boiled” Serves as the base for a stock or soupServes as the base for a stock or soup Other aromatics are addedOther aromatics are added

9 Types of Stocks Glace Made or finished to have a smooth, glossy surfaceMade or finished to have a smooth, glossy surface EX: demi-glace which is a rich, reduced brown stock Remouillage Weak stock made by resimmering bones that have already been used to make a stockWeak stock made by resimmering bones that have already been used to make a stock

10 Types of Stocks Boullion A brothA broth Comes from the word bouillier which means boilComes from the word bouillier which means boil Jus Jus means juiceJus means juice American usage is a light sauce for beef productsAmerican usage is a light sauce for beef products French usage is a natural way to enhance dishesFrench usage is a natural way to enhance dishes

11 Types of Stocks Vegetable Stock Made from the use of vegetablesMade from the use of vegetables Mirepoix Peppers Mushrooms CustomizableCustomizable

12 Preparing a Stock Blanching the bones rids them of some of the impurities that can cause cloudiness in a stock. Blanching the bones rids them of some of the impurities that can cause cloudiness in a stock. To brown bones, roast them in a hot (400°F) oven for about an hour, until they are golden brown. To brown bones, roast them in a hot (400°F) oven for about an hour, until they are golden brown. Sweating causes bone and mirepoix to release flavor more quickly when liquid is added. Sweating causes bone and mirepoix to release flavor more quickly when liquid is added. Flavor, color, body, and clarity determine the quality of stock. Flavor, color, body, and clarity determine the quality of stock. A stock should be flavorful, but not so strong that it overpowers the other ingredients in the finished dish. A stock should be flavorful, but not so strong that it overpowers the other ingredients in the finished dish. To make stock, the ratio of liquid to flavoring ingredients is standard. To make stock, the ratio of liquid to flavoring ingredients is standard. Follow proper food safety practices when cooling stock to minimize the time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone. Follow proper food safety practices when cooling stock to minimize the time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone.

13 Degreasing a Stock Degreasing is the process of removing fat that has cooled and hardened from the surface of the stock. Gives the stock a clearer and purer color. Gives the stock a clearer and purer color. Removes some of the fat content, making the stock more healthful. Removes some of the fat content, making the stock more healthful. Degrease stock by skimming, scraping, or lifting hard fat. Degrease stock by skimming, scraping, or lifting hard fat.

14 Sauces Chapter 6 Section 2

15 Grand Sauces A sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used for preparing other foodsA sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used for preparing other foods Adds flavor, moisture, and visual appealAdds flavor, moisture, and visual appeal Grand Sauces are referred to as “Mother Sauces” Grand Sauces are referred to as “Mother Sauces” 5 classical grand sauces that are used to make other sauces5 classical grand sauces that are used to make other sauces Béchamel : Made from milk and white roux Béchamel : Made from milk and white roux Velouté : Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blonde roux Velouté : Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blonde roux Brown or Espagnole sauce : Made from brown stock and brown roux Brown or Espagnole sauce : Made from brown stock and brown roux Tomato sauce : Made from a stock and tomatoes Tomato sauce : Made from a stock and tomatoes Hollandaise : This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon Hollandaise : This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon

16 Grand Sauces Béchamel Velouté

17 Brown/ Espangole Tomato Straining tomatoes for a stock with a cheesecloth to remove skins and seeds is called a tomato concase

18 Grand Sauce Hollandaise

19 Thickeners A key ingredient in sauce that adds richness and body

20 Thickeners- Roux Made of equal parts cooked flour and fatMade of equal parts cooked flour and fat Such as clarified butter, oil, or shorteningSuch as clarified butter, oil, or shortening

21 Thickener- Beurre Manie Made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butterMade of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter

22 Thickeners- Slurry Cornstarch mixed with a cold liquidCornstarch mixed with a cold liquid Can be used instead of a rouxCan be used instead of a roux

23 Thickeners- Liaison Mixture of egg yolks and heavy creamMixture of egg yolks and heavy cream Often used to finish some saucesOften used to finish some sauces

24 Preparing Different Kinds of Sauces Compound Butter- mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredientsCompound Butter- mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients Herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetablesHerbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetables Coulis- thick pureed sauceCoulis- thick pureed sauce Salsa- cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetablesSalsa- cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetables Sauces for meat, poultry, fish, or shellfishSauces for meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish Jus-lie- made from the juices from cooked meat and brown stockJus-lie- made from the juices from cooked meat and brown stock Easiest way to strain a sauce- wringing methodEasiest way to strain a sauce- wringing method Using cheesecloth over a bowl to catch impuritiesUsing cheesecloth over a bowl to catch impurities

25 Soups Chapter 6 Section 3

26 Basic Kinds of Soups Clear SoupsClear Soups Flavored stocks, broths, and consommésFlavored stocks, broths, and consommés EX: MinestroneEX: Minestrone Thick SoupsThick Soups Ice cream soupsIce cream soups Puree soupsPuree soups EX: Bisques, chowders, cream of tomato, lentil, and split pea soupEX: Bisques, chowders, cream of tomato, lentil, and split pea soup Variations on these basic soupsVariations on these basic soups Desert soupsDesert soups Fruit soupsFruit soups Cold SoupsCold Soups Traditional regional soups (clam chowder)Traditional regional soups (clam chowder)

27 Preparing Soups Most soups are cooked at a gentle simmer and stirred occasionally.Most soups are cooked at a gentle simmer and stirred occasionally. Finishing techniques are important when preparing soup for service.Finishing techniques are important when preparing soup for service. Soups should also be garnished just before service.Soups should also be garnished just before service. Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups.Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups. Broth is made from a combination of water; vegetables; beef, fish, chicken, or veal; mirepoix; and bouquet garni.Broth is made from a combination of water; vegetables; beef, fish, chicken, or veal; mirepoix; and bouquet garni. One type of clear soup is consommé.One type of clear soup is consommé. This is a rich, flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.This is a rich, flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.

28 Preparing Soups Cont. There are two kinds of thick soup—cream soups and purée soups.There are two kinds of thick soup—cream soups and purée soups. Cream soups are usually thickened with an added starch, such as roux Cream soups are usually thickened with an added starch, such as roux Cream soups should NEVER be seasonedCream soups should NEVER be seasoned Chowders are hearty, thick soups made in much the same way as cream soups. Chowders are hearty, thick soups made in much the same way as cream soups. Bisque is a cream soup usually made from puréed shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab. Bisque is a cream soup usually made from puréed shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab. Purée soups are thickened by the starch found in the puréed main ingredient, such as potatoes. Purée soups are thickened by the starch found in the puréed main ingredient, such as potatoes.


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