3The basics of a Stock There are four essential parts to all stocks: A major flavoring ingredientA liquid, most often waterMirepoixAromatics
4The Basics of a Stock: Aromatics Bouquet GarniSache d’epeciesSmall bag of cheesecloth that contains herbs and spices“Bundle of Herbs” in French; typically bay leaf, parsley, thyme
5The Basics of a Stock: Mirepoix Consists of :CeleryCarrotsOnionsPercentage of each ingredient50% onions25% celery25% carrots
6Types of StockA stock is a flavorful liquid made by gently simmering bones and/or vegetables.Stocks are often called the chef’s “building blocks.” They form the base for many soups and sauces.There are many types of stock:White stock, brown stock, fumet, court bouillon, glace, remouillage, bouillon, jus, and vegetable stockTo use bones for stock, you must first cut them to the right size and then prepare them by blanching, browning, or sweating.
7Types of Stock White Stock Brown Stock Blanching the vegetables prior to cookingCan also be made with chicken, veal, and beef bonesRoast bones before cookingRoast with a mirepoix for more flavorAny tomato product is used
8Types of Stocks Fumet Court Boullion A flavorful stock that is added to soups and sauces too add flavorFish fumetTranslates to “briefly boiled”Serves as the base for a stock or soupOther aromatics are added
9Types of Stocks Glace Remouillage Made or finished to have a smooth, glossy surfaceEX: demi-glace which is a rich, reduced brown stockWeak stock made by resimmering bones that have already been used to make a stock
10Types of Stocks Boullion Jus A broth Comes from the word bouillier which means boilJus means juiceAmerican usage is a light sauce for beef productsFrench usage is a natural way to enhance dishes
11Types of Stocks Vegetable Stock Made from the use of vegetables MirepoixPeppersMushroomsCustomizable
12Preparing a StockBlanching the bones rids them of some of the impurities that can cause cloudiness in a stock.To brown bones, roast them in a hot (400°F) oven for about an hour, until they are golden brown.Sweating causes bone and mirepoix to release flavor more quickly when liquid is added.Flavor, color, body, and clarity determine the quality of stock.A stock should be flavorful, but not so strong that it overpowers the other ingredients in the finished dish.To make stock, the ratio of liquid to flavoring ingredients is standard. Follow proper food safety practices when cooling stock to minimize the time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone.
13Degreasing a Stock Gives the stock a clearer and purer color. Degreasing is the process of removing fat that has cooled and hardened from the surface of the stock.Gives the stock a clearer and purer color.Removes some of the fat content, making the stock more healthful.Degrease stock by skimming, scraping, or lifting hard fat.
15Grand SaucesA sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used for preparing other foodsAdds flavor, moisture, and visual appealGrand Sauces are referred to as “Mother Sauces”5 classical grand sauces that are used to make other saucesBéchamel: Made from milk and white rouxVelouté: Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blonde rouxBrown or Espagnole sauce: Made from brown stock and brown rouxTomato sauce: Made from a stock and tomatoesHollandaise: This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon
19A key ingredient in sauce that adds richness and body ThickenersA key ingredient in sauce that adds richness and body
20Thickeners- Roux Made of equal parts cooked flour and fat Such as clarified butter, oil, or shortening
21Thickener- Beurre Manie Made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter
22Thickeners- Slurry Cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid Can be used instead of a roux
23Thickeners- Liaison Mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream Often used to finish some sauces
24Preparing Different Kinds of Sauces Compound Butter- mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredientsHerbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetablesCoulis- thick pureed sauceSalsa- cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/or vegetablesSauces for meat, poultry, fish, or shellfishJus-lie- made from the juices from cooked meat and brown stockEasiest way to strain a sauce- wringing methodUsing cheesecloth over a bowl to catch impurities
26Basic Kinds of Soups Clear Soups Thick Soups Flavored stocks, broths, and consommésEX: MinestroneThick SoupsIce cream soupsPuree soupsEX: Bisques, chowders, cream of tomato, lentil, and split pea soupVariations on these basic soupsDesert soupsFruit soupsCold SoupsTraditional regional soups (clam chowder)
27Preparing SoupsMost soups are cooked at a gentle simmer and stirred occasionally.Finishing techniques are important when preparing soup for service.Soups should also be garnished just before service.Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups.Broth is made from a combination of water; vegetables; beef, fish, chicken, or veal; mirepoix; and bouquet garni.One type of clear soup is consommé.This is a rich, flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.
28Preparing Soups Cont.There are two kinds of thick soup—cream soups and purée soups.Cream soups are usually thickened with an added starch, such as rouxCream soups should NEVER be seasonedChowders are hearty, thick soups made in much the same way as cream soups.Bisque is a cream soup usually made from puréed shellfish shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab.Purée soups are thickened by the starch found in the puréed main ingredient, such as potatoes.