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FOODS THAT ARE CORRUPTING THE HEALTH OF THE YOUNG SYNTHETIC FOOD CONSUMERISM GONE GRAZY David Bissonnette PhD, RD MSU, Mankato, Fall 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "FOODS THAT ARE CORRUPTING THE HEALTH OF THE YOUNG SYNTHETIC FOOD CONSUMERISM GONE GRAZY David Bissonnette PhD, RD MSU, Mankato, Fall 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOODS THAT ARE CORRUPTING THE HEALTH OF THE YOUNG SYNTHETIC FOOD CONSUMERISM GONE GRAZY David Bissonnette PhD, RD MSU, Mankato, Fall 2012

2 WHO BELIEVES THAT THE FOOD SUPPLY IS CORRUPT? A. VERY CORRUPT B. MODERATLY CORRUPT C. MILDLY CORRUPT D. NOT VERY CORRUPT E. MOST WHOLESOME FOOD IN THE WORLD

3 U.S LATE 19 TH CENTURY THE U.S FOOD SUPPLY HAD PROBLEMS WITH ADULTERATION THE U.S FOOD SUPPLY HAD PROBLEMS WITH ADULTERATION THE LIKELIHOOD OF GETTING SICK FROM FOOD WAS HIGH THE LIKELIHOOD OF GETTING SICK FROM FOOD WAS HIGH

4 U.S BOARD OF TRADE IN THE UNITED STATES—1850s: EFFORTS TO STANDARDIZE FOODS FAILED BECAUSE OF PRESSURE FROM THE U.S BOARD OF TRADE – THERE WERE CONCERNS THAT REGULATIONS WOULD CREATE A HIGHLY RIGID AND INFLEXIBLE SYSTEM THAT WOULD STIFLE COMMERCE – IN THE 1880s ONLY WEAK LEGISLATION EMERGED TO PROTECT THE U.S PUBLIC FROM FOOD ADULTERATIONS – IN THE U.S THERE WAS NO INITIATIVE FOR A FOOD CODEX – BY 1910 THERE WAS NO NUTRIENT-BASED FOOD STANDARDIZATION WHEREAS A CODEX ALIMENTARIUS EXISTED IN EUROPE BY 1908 STANDARDIZATION OF FOOD IN THE U.S

5 THE NEW SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LEAD TO THE PRODUCTION OF … THE NEW SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LEAD TO THE PRODUCTION OF … – SAFER FOODMORE AFFORDABLE FOOD – SAFER FOOD & MORE AFFORDABLE FOOD – BROADER ASSORTMENT OF FOODS – MORE IMPOVERISHED FOOD STARCHES COULD BE MANIPULATED TO PRODUCE STARCHES COULD BE MANIPULATED TO PRODUCE SUGAR USED TO ENHANCE TASTE SUGAR USED TO ENHANCE TASTE CHEAP AND VARIED FOOD SUPPLY

6 THE PROCESSING OF WHEAT

7 THE PURE FOOD CONCEPT MEANT THE PURE FOOD CONCEPT MEANT: – NO FOREIGN OBJECTS IN FOOD – NO PUTREFIED INGREDIENTS – NO PUTREFACTION OF FOOD – IT DID NOT RESTRICT THE MIXING OF INGREDIENTS – IT DID NOT RESTRICT SUBSTITUTIONS – IT DID NOT RESTRICT FOOD ADDITIVES FOOD PURITY—U.S ENDEAVOR

8 WE WERE NOT LONGER GETTING SICK FROM DECAYING MEATS & ORGANIC MATERIAL !

9 CHEAP FOOD SUPPLY NUTRITIONALLY IMPORVERISHED FOOD WAS BEEING PRODUCED IN THE U.S: 1920s, 1930s, 1940s & 1950s—PROCESSED FOODS INCREASED NUTRITIONALLY IMPORVERISHED FOOD WAS BEEING PRODUCED IN THE U.S: 1920s, 1930s, 1940s & 1950s—PROCESSED FOODS INCREASED – IN THE 1950s U.S FOOD MANUFACTURERS WERE INCREASINGLY PROCESSING FOOD TO HIGH DEGREES BABYBOOMER GENERATION WAS EXPANDING BABYBOOMER GENERATION WAS EXPANDING THERE WAS INCREASINGLY A NEED FOR MORE AFFORDABLE FOOD THERE WAS INCREASINGLY A NEED FOR MORE AFFORDABLE FOOD

10 INGREDIENTS OF LESSER QUALITY WERE NOW BEING USED TO PRODUCE KNOWN PRODUCTS INGREDIENTS OF LESSER QUALITY WERE NOW BEING USED TO PRODUCE KNOWN PRODUCTS – THE PERVERSION OF GERMAN CHOCOLATE – THE PERVERSION OF GERMAN CHOCOLATE: “Expensive cocoa butter was replaced by cheaper animal fats; some producers even added starch or farina.” [Spiekermann: Director of German Historical Institute] “Expensive cocoa butter was replaced by cheaper animal fats; some producers even added starch or farina.” [Spiekermann: Director of German Historical Institute] CHEAP FOOD SUPPLY

11 HERSHEY MILK CHOCOLATE INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS: Milk chocolate (Sugar; Milk; Chocolate; Cocoa Butter; Lactose; Milk Fat; Soy Lecithin; PGPR; Emulsifier, Vanillin, Artificial Flavor

12 GREEN & BLACK’S ORGANIC CHOCOLATE INGREDIENTS: organic Bittersweet Chocolate (Organic chocolate. Organic Raw Sugar Cane, Organic Cococa Butter, Soy Lecithin, Organic Vanilla Extract) Organic Coffee, Organic Whole Milk Powder

13 KIT-KAT CHOCOLATE INGREDIENTS: Wheat flour; Non-Fat Milk; Cocoa Butter; Chocolate; Palm Kernel Oil; Lactose; Milk Fat; Soy Lecithin; PGPR emulsifier; Yeast, Vanilla Artificial Flavor, Salt, Sodium Bicarbonate

14 TASTE TEST: TASTE CHALLENGE

15 HOW CHEAP IS THE U.S FOOD SUPPLY Derek Thompson, The Atlantic, January 11, 2010 In 2007, only about 6.9 percent of U.S. consumer spending went for food at home; Germans spent more (11.4 percent), as did Italians (14.5 percent) and Mexicans (24.2 percent).[Derek Thompson, The Atlantic, January 11, 2010]

16 CONSEQUENCE OF CHEAP FOOD Derek Thompson, The Atlantic January 11, 2010 “The cheap food revolution hasn't just given low-income families cheaper options. It's come at the expense of healthier food. A dollar today buys 1,200 calories of potato chips and 250 calories of vegetables or 170 calories of fresh fruit.”[Derek Thompson, The Atlantic January 11, 2010].

17 GOVERNMENT FOOD SUBSIDIES GOVERNMENT FOOD SUBSIDIES BRING DOWN THE PRICE OF CORN AND MANY WHEAT PRODUCTS GOVERNMENT FOOD SUBSIDIES BRING DOWN THE PRICE OF CORN AND MANY WHEAT PRODUCTS VIEW THE VIDEO: ive/2012/02/04/government-subsidize-junk- food.aspx ive/2012/02/04/government-subsidize-junk- food.aspx

18 WHAT ARE AMERICANS EATING?

19 THE SNACK ILLUSION

20 MANIPULATED STARCHES MANIPULATED STARCHES TEXTURE CONTROL AGENT TEXTURE CONTROL AGENT: CALCIUM CHLORIDE ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS & SUBSTITUTES ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS & SUBSTITUTES: – MARGARINES LOOKED LIKE & TASTED LIKE BUTTER – FLAKED POTATOES LOOKED LIKE & TASTED LIKE MASHED POTATOES WHEN COOKED – CAKES THAT LOOK & TASTE DELICIOUS, BUT ARE NOT REAL FOODS FOOD ADDITIVES—THE CULPRITS

21 IN 1965 AMERICANS WERE CONSUMING 3 LBS OF ADDITIVES PER PERSON/YEAR IN 2009 IT WAS ESTIMATED THAT AMERICANS CONSUME BETWEEN 8-10 LBS OF ADDITIVES PER PERSON PER YEAR In 2011 JAPANESE CONSUMED 55 LBS/PERSON /YEAR ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS SINCE THE 1980s THE MOST ABUNDANT USE OF ADDITIVES HAVE BEEN ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS CONCERN ABOUT THE CARCINOGENECITY OF ADDITIVES…REAL OR ILLUSION? CONCERN ABOUT THE CARCINOGENECITY OF ADDITIVES…REAL OR ILLUSION? FOOD ADDITIVES

22 MANIPULATED PROCESSED FOOD FULLY EMBRACED BY THE PUBLIC—NOT REJECTED— A TRUE PARADOX WAS DEVELOPING FOOD ADDITIVES & CONTAMINANTS

23 DR BEN FEINGOLD DR BEN FEINGOLD: ADVANCES THAT SALYCILATES IN FOODS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN HE SUGGESTS THAT FOOD COMPONENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR DETERIORATED HEALTH FEINGOLD INSTITUTE: HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN

24 DR. BEN FEINGOLD DR FEINGOLD CLAIMS THAT BY ELIMINATING CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES AND ARTIFICIAL COLORS HE CAN REDUCE HYPERACTIVITY IN SOME CHILDREN— NOT ALL

25 NEW STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF TARTRAZINE—YELLOW DYE # 5 STUDY BY ROWE, K.S & ROWE, K.J JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS 1994 Nov;125(5 Pt 1): CONCLUSION: Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

26 HIGH TASTE SENSATION AMERICANS WERE BECOMING ADDICTED TO FOODS WITH HIGH TASTE SENSATION

27 SODAS HIGHLY PROCESSED FOODS ARE IN FACT SYNTHETIC—ALL NATURAL NUTRIENTS, FLAVORS AND TEXTURES ARE LIKELY REMOVED 1

28 SODAS ARE MAKING OUR KIDS SICK

29 SODA CONSUMPTION IN THE U.S IN THE 1940s: 20 X 6fl-oz BOTTLES/YEAR IN THE 1940s: 20 X 6fl-oz BOTTLES/YEAR – 1.4 gallons of soda / person / year IN 2000: 576 X 12fl-oz BOTTLES/YEAR IN 2000: 576 X 12fl-oz BOTTLES/YEAR – 54 gallons of soda / person / year

30 PURCHASE THE OBESITY IN AMERICA DOCUMENTARY BY CLICKING HERE: m OR GO TO: FILMS FOR HUMANITIES & SCIENCES: AND TYPE IN: OBESITY IN AMERICA: A National Crisishttp://ffh.films.com

31 IN % OF CHILDREN (2-19) WERE OBESE IN % OF CHILDREN (2-19) WERE OBESE SINCE 1963 THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN THE PREVALENCE OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY TOOK PLACE IN AGES: OVER 45 YEARS ( ) SINCE 1963 THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN THE PREVALENCE OF PEDIATRIC OBESITY TOOK PLACE IN AGES: OVER 45 YEARS ( ) – 6-11 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: 366% INCREASE – YEAR OLD TEENAGERS: 293% INCREASE OBESE CHILDREN

32 IN , 35-36% OF U.S CHILDREN WERE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE IN , 35-36% OF U.S CHILDREN WERE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE IN % OF FRENCH CHILDREN WERE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE IN % OF FRENCH CHILDREN WERE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE

33 BETWEEN 1970—2000: 549% INCREASE IN HEALTH CARE COSTS RELATED TO MANAGING PEDIATRIC OBESITY BETWEEN 1970—2000: 549% INCREASE IN HEALTH CARE COSTS RELATED TO MANAGING PEDIATRIC OBESITY ALARMING: 9.5% OBESITY AMONG INFANTS AND TODDLERS UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE ALARMING: 9.5% OBESITY AMONG INFANTS AND TODDLERS UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE FINANCIAL COST TO HEALTH CARE

34 POTATO CHIPS HAVARD STUDY IN 2011 FOUND POTATO CHIPS SIGNIFICANTLY TIED TO WEIGHT GAIN 2

35 POTATO CHIPS—NATIONAL OBSESSION 2006—$6.5 BILLION IN SALES 2010—THE AVERAGE PERSON CONSUMES 96oz-wt OF POTATO CHIPS/YEAR OR 6 LBS IN WT & THIS EQUALS 2 LBS OF BUTTER OR 15,360 KCAL/YEAR 2009—POTATO CHIP SALES GREW 22% (DURING RECESSION) 2005—16 LBS/CAPITA/YEAR

36 POTATO CHIP ANALYSIS

37 SENSORY EVALUATION LABS

38 DONUT 3

39 BLUEBERRY CRUMB DONUT

40 INGREDIENTS IN BLUEBERRY CRUMB DONUTS INGREDIENTS: Enriched Unbleached Wheat Flour Skim Milk, Yeast Sugar Coconut, Yellow Corn Flour INGREDIENTS: Donut: Enriched Unbleached Wheat Flour (Wheat Flour, Malted Barley Flour, Niacin, Iron as Ferrous Sulfate, Thiamin Mononitrate, Enzyme, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Palm Oil, Water, Dextrose, Soybean Oil, Whey (a milk derivative), Skim Milk, Yeast, Contains less than 2% of the following: Salt, Leavening (Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Baking Soda), Defatted Soy Flour, Wheat Starch, Mono and Diglycerides, Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate, Cellulose Gum, Soy Lecithin, Guar Gum, Xanthan Gum, Artificial Flavor, Sodium Caseinate (a milk derivative), Enzyme, Colored with (Turmeric and Annatto Extracts, Beta Carotene), Eggs; Crunch Topping: Sugar, Coconut, Yellow Corn Flour, Caramel Color, BHT (antioxidant); Glaze:Sugar Glaze: Sugar, Water, Maltodextrin, Contains 2% or less of the following: Mono and Diglycerides, Agar, Cellulose Gum, Citric Acid, Potassium Sorbate (Preservative), Artificial Flavor; Blueberry FillingSugar SyrupWild BlueberriesCorn Syrup, Water Blueberry Filling: Sugar Syrup, Wild Blueberries, Corn Syrup, Water, Modified Food Starch, Contains less than 2% of the following: Citric Acid, Natural and Artificial Flavors, Xanthan Gum, Locust Bean Gum, Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate (Preservatives), Sodium Citrate, Cinnamon.

41 ARTIFICIAL JUICES MADE FROM CRYSTALS

42 SYNTHESIZED VITAMINS—1950s, 1960s, 1970s: SYNTHESIZED VITAMINS—1950s, 1960s, 1970s: – MEANT THE MANIPULATION OF NUTRIENTS: VITAMINS COULD BE ADDED BACK TO REFINED FOOD VITAMINS COULD BE ADDED BACK TO REFINED FOOD JUNK FOOD COULD NOW BE SEEN AS HEALTHY JUNK FOOD COULD NOW BE SEEN AS HEALTHY – MORE VITAMIN C IN ONE CUP OF TANG THAN IN 1 CUP OF ORANGE JUICE THAN IN 1 CUP OF ORANGE JUICE – DEVELOPED BY GENERAL FOODS IN 1959 SALES INCREASED AFTER IT WAS ADOPTED BY NASA INCREASED AFTER IT WAS ADOPTED BY NASA FOR THE MERCURY AND GEMINI MISSIONS FOR THE MERCURY AND GEMINI MISSIONS IN 1960s IN 1960s – KRAFT FOODS: TANG ® CHEAP & IMPOVERISHED FOOD

43 THE DESSERT ILLUSION DESSERTS & SWEET SNACKS THAT CAUSE ADDICTION

44 THE STUDY OF HOW THE TASTE, COLOR, TEXTURE, FEEL AND FLAVOR OF FOOD STIMULATES THE SENSE ORGANS THE STUDY OF HOW THE TASTE, COLOR, TEXTURE, FEEL AND FLAVOR OF FOOD STIMULATES THE SENSE ORGANS SCIENTISTS KNOW THAT A FOODS WITH HIGH ORGANOLEPTICS TEND TO HAVE HIGH VOLUME SALES SCIENTISTS KNOW THAT A FOODS WITH HIGH ORGANOLEPTICS TEND TO HAVE HIGH VOLUME SALES ORGANOLEPTICS—THE PLEASURE OF FOOD

45 CHEAP & IMPOVERSIHED DIET FOODS JELLO, GELATIN DESSERT, SUGAR FREE, LOW CALORIE, STRAWBERRY BANANA INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS: Gelatin, Adipic Acid (for Tartness), Disodium phosphate (Control Acidity), Maltodextrin (from Corn), strawberry Juice Solids, Fumaric Acid (for Tartness), Contains Less than 2% of Natural Flavor, aspartame (Phenylketonurics Contains Phenylalanine), and Acesulfame Potassium (Sweeteners), Salt, Blue 1, Red 40. <> THERE ARE NO STRAWBERRIES

46 CHEAP & IMPOVERSIHED DESSERTS STRAWBERRY BANANAJEL JELLO, GELATIN DESSERT, INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS: SUGAR, GELATIN, ADIPIC ACID (FOR TARTNESS), CONTAINS LESS THAN 2% OF ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, DISODIUM PHOSPHATE AND SODIUM CITRATE (CONTROL ACIDITY), FUMARIC ACID (FOR TARTNESS), RED 40. <> THERE ARE NO STRAWBERRIES OR BANANAS

47 COMMON FOOD INGREDIENTS IN MANY PASTRIES CHEAP & IMPOVERISHED FOOD

48 DERIVED FROM SILICA GEL CENTRIFUGATION DERIVED FROM SILICA GEL CENTRIFUGATION FUNCTIONAL USES FUNCTIONAL USES : Antifoaming agent, anti- caking agent Polydimethylsiloxane

49 INGREDIENT INGREDIENT: Petroleum derivative, BHA is a synthetic analogue of vitamin E FUNCTION FUNCTION: It is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative, and is prepared from p-methoxyphenol and isobutene. BHA can be used in baked products as it is stable at high temperatures, it is mainly used to prevent rancidity in fats and oils WHERE IS IT USED? WHERE IS IT USED?:. Typical products include biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products, sweets, edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps; BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOL (BHA)

50 INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS: Petroleum derivative, BHA is a synthetic analogue of vitamin E FUNCTION FUNCTION: It is one of the most commonly used antioxidants for food oils and fats and is much cheaper than BHA although it is more unstable at high temperatures WHERE IS IT USED WHERE IS IT USED: There is evidence that BHT causes cell division. Typical products include biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE BHT

51 FUNCTION FUNCTION: Synthetic flavor, texture retainer, anti- gushing agent in beer, preservative, sequestrant and color promoter. WHERE IS IT USED WHERE IS IT USED: Canned soft drink, tinned white potatoes, salad dressings, egg products, oleomargarine, potato salad, lima beans, mushrooms, pecan pie filling, sandwich spreads SIDE EFFECTS SIDE EFFECTS: Causes mineral imbalance. Known enzyme and blood coagulant inhibitor. Gastrointestinal disturbances, blood in urine, kidney damage and muscle cramps are side effects. Banned in Australia Calcium disodium (EDTA) ethylene diamine tetraacetate

52 PROCESSED FOODS THE MEAL ILLUSION

53 58% OF MEAT CONSUMED IN U.S IS RED MEAT AND 22% IS PROCESSED TOTAL MEAT CONSUMED PER PERSON /DAY: 4.6 oz-wt Daniel CR, Cross AJ, Koebnick C, Sinha R. Public Health Nutr Apr;14(4): DEHYDRATED FLAKED POTATOES: IN THE 1960s AMERICAN CONSUMED : 5 lbs/ PERSON/YEAR; BY 2000: 15.7 LBS/PERSON/YEAR—214% INCREASE

54 CHEMICAL-BASED INGREDIENTS SNUCK INTO THE FOOD— CHEAP TO PRODUCE & TASTES GREAT! CHEMICAL-BASED INGREDIENTS SNUCK INTO THE FOOD— CHEAP TO PRODUCE & TASTES GREAT! MACARONI & CHEESE: EVERYTING THAT IS WRONG WITH AMERICAN FOOD MACARONI & CHEESE: EVERYTING THAT IS WRONG WITH AMERICAN FOOD – ORIGINALLY CONTAINED NO CHEESE – NOW SOME CHEESE IN THE FORM OF AN EMULSIFIED CHEESE SAUCE – VERY HIGH IN SODIUM: 25% OF MAX ALLOWANCE – ENRICHED WITH THIAMIN, RIBOFLAVIN, NIACIN, IRON, FOLATE – HIGH IN PHOSPHORUS 25% OF DV – NOT A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM—6%DV ? – YELLOW COLOR DYE # 5 & 6 IMPOVERISHED FOOD SUPPLY

55 KRAFT MACARONI & CHEESE INGREDIENTSwheat flour, powdered sauce INGREDIENTS: wheat flour, powdered sauce: whey (milk protein), milk protein concentrate, milk, milk fat, cheese culture, salt, sodium tri-polyphosphate, sodium phosphate, calcium phosphate, yellow 5, yellow 6, citric acid, lactic acid, and enzymes. NUTRITION NUTRITION: NOT EVEN A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM

56 NATURAL MACARONI & CHEESE THERE SHOULD ONLY BE 4 INGREDIENTS THERE SHOULD ONLY BE 4 INGREDIENTS – 2 cups elbow macaroni 2 cups skim milk 1 1/2 cups shredded cheddar cheese 1 tsp mustard powder NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF ONE SERVING NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF ONE SERVING 361 Kcal Sodium: 110 mg <5% DV (very low) – Calories: 361 Kcal Sodium: 110 mg <5% DV (very low) 18%DV(good source) – Protein: 16g Calcium: 181 mg 18%DV (good source) – Carbohydrates: 62g Phosphorous: 240 mg – Fat: 5 g; Sat fat: 2.35g Vitamin A: 83 mcg – Mono-Fat: 1.17g – Poly-Fat: 0.69g

57 PROCESSED CEREAL PROCESSED READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREALS CAUSED A BREAKFAST REVOLUTION THE BREAKFAST ILLUSION

58 THE IMPOVERISHED BREAKFAST

59 KELLOGG’S CEREALS U.S LEGISLATIONS ESTABLISHED REQUIRED FOOD ENRICHMENT: Niacin, Riboflavin and Thiamin were added to flour, gains, and cereals

60 POST CEREALS CHILDREN’S CEREALS MARKETED BY SLICK ADVERTIZING CAMPAIGNS INTRODUCED SUGARY CEREALS WITH HIGH TASTE SENSATION

61 WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN YOUR FOOD? The American Food Supply is so Impoverished in nutritional quality that Our Children are now getting sick at younger ages 1 FOOD COLORING 2 FLAVORING AGENTS 3 SODIUM, SUGAR & FAT

62 FOOD COLORING FOODS ARE SO HIGHLY PROCESSED THAT NATURAL COLORS WERE BLEACHED OUT. RED DYE # 4 PROVIDES CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE 1

63 2 FLAVORING AGENTS NATURAL FLAVORS ARE NOW ENZYMATICALLY DERIVED

64 3 SODIUM, SUGAR & FAT HIGH FRUCTOSE CORNSYRUP IS CONSUMED IN LARGE QUANTITIES: 174grams/PERSON/YEAR

65 WE MUST BEGIN TO RETRAIN OUR PALATE TO SAVE OUR KIDS

66 THE BEGINNINGS OF TASTE HABITUATION

67 SIMPLE AND GOOD


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