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Artisan Breads Chef Usilton Office Hours: 4:30-5:15 Phone: 625-1111 x 5325

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Presentation on theme: "Artisan Breads Chef Usilton Office Hours: 4:30-5:15 Phone: 625-1111 x 5325"— Presentation transcript:

1 Artisan Breads Chef Usilton Office Hours: 4:30-5:15 Phone: 625-1111 x 5325 E-mail:

2 Day 1 Review Syllabus Safety and sanitation Review Block 6 Review Ingredients Review Vocabulary Identify Grains Starters and Sours Bread Shapes Scoring breads

3 Daily Class Requirements Digital scale- we will use metric Tools as per syllabus- Add 18” ruler Textbook Formula for each day’s bread- from Formula Development sheet Needed by Day 7: First 10 pages of formula packet Final Grading: Bread display 10, Formula 10, Plaque 10

4 Safety In emergency, pick up phone- will automatically dial security Report any unsafe hazards to Chef Wash hands!

5 Production PRODUCTION SHEET All breads proofed on corn meal dusted boards, flour dusted couche, or baskets All breads baked on hearth with steam- EXCEPTION- Sweet doughs are baked on lined double pans - shorter steam

6 Ingredients- Functions Sugar Liquids- Hydration Yeast Salt Fats Dairy Eggs

7 History Egypt first to cultivate grains Porridge/Bread High extraction flour Barm Hand mixing Gluten development Fermentation

8 Cereal Grains Wheat- Commercial, Artisan Spelt Rye Corn Oat Rice

9 Types of Wheat Red/White Strain of wheat Winter/Spring Time of year planted Generally, Stronger flours (13%+ protein) are from spring wheat Artisan bakers prefer Winter wheat- 10.5- 12% Hard/Soft- Refers to kernel hardness/protein content- Hard used for breads

10 Wheat flour Parts of wheat kernel Bran, Germ, Endosperm Flour Make up Moisture- 14% % protein- Gluten- 10.5-12 % (Preferred) Ash:.05 MINIMUM Extraction 100%= Whole wheat/ 1.5% Ash 77 % =.5 ash

11 Gluten 2 proteins Glutenin- Elastic Gliadin- Extensibility

12 Milling of flours Patent- Highest quality- milled from heart of endosperm Clear- Contains more bran- darker color- higher in protein- used with rye breads Straight- Combination of clear and patent- rarely used

13 Flour Milling Milling

14 WHAT IS ARTISAN BREADS? Flavor Crumb Color Use of pre-ferments Aveoles/Hydration Slow development Hand made?


16 Fermentation Flavor of wheat Helps develop Dough strength Extensibility, elasticity, tenacity Pre-ferments: Natural, commercial yeast

17 Flavor Sourdoughs- Lactic vs. ascetic acid Lactic- develops at higher temperatures (85) and liquid levain (homofermentative) Ascetic- develops at lower temperatures (55) and with stiff levain (heterofermentative)

18 Factors affecting Fermentation Flour: high ash content Temperature: 74-80 Starch damage Amount of Yeast/Salt/Sugar Ph Protease

19 Starters- Natural 2 ingredients> Flour and water Seed culture > (stiff or liquid) Starter (stiff or liquid) Levain (pre-ferment) (stiff)- 50% -60% hydration or (liquid)- 100%-120% hydration Bread dough


21 CARE AND FEEDING 2 ingredients- flour and water Every 24 hours Max 3 days in refrigerator Weigh starter- calculate flour based on weight Fresh flour = to amount in barm Doubling starter

22 Liquid Starter Flour =100% Water = 100% Total = 200% Flour = 100% /200% =.5 Water = 100%/200% =.5 1# starter contains 8 oz. flour and 8 oz. water Feeding is 8 oz. flour and 8oz. water

23 Stiff Starter Flour = 100% Water = 60% Total = 160% Flour = 100/160=.625 Water = 60/160=.375 Feeding= W t. of starter x.625=Flour Wt. of starter x.375=Water

24 Converting Liquid to Stiff Weigh liquid Starter Multiply by.33 Add that amount of flour to liquid starter to make stiff Work ahead when needing a stiff starter- make day in advance

25 Fermentation Time and Temperature DDT Levain- DDT x 4 - Levain temp

26 Yeasted pre-ferments Liquid: Poolish- 100% hydration Stiff: Sponge (60-65%),Biga (50-55%) Pate Fermentee- old dough- usually contains salt

27 Mixing Methods Slow Intensive Improved Double hydration

28 Mixers Planetary Oblique fork Spiral RPM determines mixing time Improved- 1000 rpm in second speed Can vary depending on size of batch and dough hydration Our mixers- Incorporate on first- 3 min. 2 nd Friction- 15

29 Oblique Mixer

30 Spiral Mixer

31 Retarding After mixing After pre-shaping After final shaping

32 Basic Bread Shapes Boule Var. -Tabatiere, Couronne, Auvergnat, Fleur, Pain d’Aix Baguette Var.- Epi, S, fougasse, braid Batard Var.- Tordu, Fendu, Viverais, Charleston,

33 Make- up Shaping

34 Hand Mixing

35 Stretch and Fold Mixing

36 Baguette- Mixing Methods Straight/Autolyse Pate fermentee Sponge Poolish

37 Baking Process Final proof Scoring Oven spring Steam Oven temperature Maillard reaction Baking- Doneness/Internal temperature (210) Crust Cooling

38 Scoring Use sharp blade- lame, razor, serrated knife, scissors Allows even expansion of bread Increases eye appeal Hold blade at 45 o angle Refer to pg. 115-118 Parallel- expand sides (Baguette) Perpendicular- Expand up (Rye)

39 Scoring

40 Evaluating Appearance Exterior: Scoring/Grigne Interior:Color/Aveoles Aroma/Flavor Evaluating Bread

41 Baguette Classic shape 4 ingredients and levit Autolyse common Pre-ferment helps give flavor/strength Low temperature = slow fermentation Slow fermentation= more flavor 75 dough temp/ Friction= 20-30 Mix 3 min.2 nd speed Scale 400 g Couche

42 Ciabatta Slipper bread Hydration- 75+% Double hydration Mix dough in hotel pan DDT=80 Place in proof box Fold- every ½ hour- 2 hr. fermentation To portion- turn onto bench- cut into 2 pieces (500g) Place on corn meal dusted board

43 Today’s Production Each Group: As per Production schedule Every day- mix bread doughs before lecture All levains and breads- wrap, label, TIME AND TEMPERATURE Homework- Baguette makeup Baguette Shaping

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