3 Origin and Suitability of Colors : 1. Food coloringOrigin and Suitability of Colors :Serious poisoning occurred from the use of such dangerous inorganic pigmentsExample : copper sulfate, copper arsenite, red lead, cinnabarSimilar colors such as : red oxide of iron, ultramarine, thitanium dioxide (which are still used occasionally) were harmless ???Organic dyes were synthesized and can be applied in food manufacture, as well as to textiles, plastics, ink and non edible comodities.
4 1. Food coloring Definition : Any substance that is added to food or drink to improve or change its color.Function :Offsetting color loss due to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture, and storage conditions.Masking natural variations in color.Enhancing naturally occurring colors.Providing identity to foods.Protecting flavors and vitamins from damage by light.Decorative or artistic purposes such as cake icing.
5 Color Categories Synthetic no similar natural color identical to a natural color (ex : riboflavin, Carmine, Carotenoid)Natural obtained from plants or animals
6 Natural Dye Type Color Source Used in Caramel coloring (E150) Caramel Caramelized sugarCola products, cosmetics.Annatto (E160b)Red-YellowSeed of the AchioteButter, cheeseChlorophyll, E140GreenChlorella algaeCochineal (E120)RedInsect (Dactylopius coccus)BetaninRed-pupleBeetsCurcuminoids, E100Yellow-orangeTurmericCarotenoids, E160aYellow-purplish redSaffronE160cPurplish redPaprika
8 Certified Colors Water soluble (Dye) or Lipid soluble (Lakes) ??? Natural or synthetic color ???Ex. FD &C red no 3 & 40, FD &C blue no 1, FD&C Yellow no 5&6Future Alternative Color ???FD & C ???Blended to created desired shade of color
9 Artificial Dye Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 Blue shade FD&C Blue No. 1 TypeColorFD&CBrilliant Blue FCF, E133Blue shadeFD&C Blue No. 1Indigotine, E132Dark Blue shadeFD&C Blue No. 2Fast Green FCF, E143Turquoise shadeFD&C Green No. 3Allura Red AC, E129Red ShadeFD&C Red No. 40Erythrosine, E127Pink ShadeFD&C Red No. 3Tartrazine, E102YellowFD&C Yellow No. 5Sunset Yellow FCF, E110Orange shadeFD&C Yellow No. 6
10 Those colors were approved by U.K Amaranth delisted from U.S lists JECFA List ColorsClassColorsQuinolineYellowTartrazineErythrosineRedSunset Yellow FCFOrangeIndigotineRed/bluePonceau 4 RBrilliant blue FCFBlueRed 2 GPatent blue VAzorubineGreen SGreen/blueAmaranth *Brilliant black BNPurple/blackBrown FKYellow/brownBrown HTBrownThose colors were approved by U.KAmaranth delisted from U.S lists
11 European US Certified Colors Colors Dose (mg/kg) Carmoisine E122 Max 20Ponceau 4 R E124Max 50Erythrosine E 127Riboflavine E101Brilliant green E142Max 100Patent blue V E131Indigo carmine E132Black PN E151Carotenoids E160CanthaxanthineMax 500ColorsStatusFD & C Red no 3PermanentFD & C Red no 40FD & C blue no 1FD & C blue no 2FD & C Green no 3FD & C Yellow no 5FD & C Yellow no 6
12 Delisted Colors : FD&C Red No. 2 – Amaranth (dye) FD&C Red No. 4 FD&C Red No. 32 was used to color Florida orangesFD&C Orange No. 2 was used to color Florida orangesFD&C Orange No. 1, was one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven original food dyes allowed under the Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906.
13 “Primary colors & secondary colors ???” 1. Food coloring“Primary colors & secondary colors ???”Young children like bright, vibrant colours (reds, yellows and oranges etc...) whilst Older people like more gentle or sophisticated colours and tones such as shades of blue.PrimaryComplementaryRed+YellowOrangeBlueGreenPurple
15 2. flavoring Flavor Definition Complex sensation induced by chemical compounds that are present in food or drink and are in equlibrium at time of ingestion. Simultaneous appreciation of stimuli receptors of taste on the tongue and smell in the nasal cavity, and general pain, feeling, and temperature receptors located throughout the mouth and throath (Heath, 1981)Flavor is important in Confectionery Factor that has no chemical or physiological basis for inclusion in the diet, but without it there would likely be no confectionery industry.
16 2. flavoring Definition : The sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste (tongue) and smell (nasal cavity). The taste of food is limited to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory.Function :- Impress sense of taste and smell- Enhance natural/original flavor in food product- Offsetting flavor loss due to food processing
17 FlavorFlavor preference and acceptance or rejection of foods, and confectionery products are no exception, display enormous variability, depending on such factor : ethnic origins education upbringing age environmentFlavor - Odor - Smell ????
18 Flavoring Materials Naturally occurring plant materials Herbs, spices, vanilla, fruits, nuts, aromatic vegetables.Derivate from Natural Substance Extracts, essences, essential Oils, oleoresins, fruit juices, concentrates.Flavor Isolate Eugenol from clove leaf oil, citral from lemon grass oil.Synthetics by chemicall ex : vanillin from wood ligninArtificial aromatic chemicals ex : gamma undecalactoneFlavor enhancers ex : maltolTaste modifiers ex : salt, sugar, organic acid.
19 Flavoring IngredientFruit flavor mixed with synthetic flavor (improve original flavor, more stabile, resistant to high temperature).Caramel, honey, brown sugar, maple sugar, chocolate, milk, cream, butter = specific contributor of candy flavor.Type :Natural flavor : Vanilla, citrus oil, essential oilFruit flavor :Bananas, apples & berries, etc.Acid :Citric acid, tartaric acid or volatile oil and aromatic chemicals.
20 Synthetics Flavor Ex. Formula of Apple Flavor : Geranilvalerat 10% Geranil n-butirat 8%Geranil propionat 8%Linalil format 10%Isoamilvalerat 15%Vanilin 8%Alylkaprilat 6%Geranil aldehid 5%Asetil dehida 6,5%Metil siklopentonolon valerat %Alfamentil furil akroelin 2%Isoamil butirat 13,5%
21 3. acidulants Definition Any substance that is added to food or drink to give or improve sour taste and odour. Additives that give a sharp taste to foods. They also assist in the setting of gels (consistency) and to act as preservatives.Many natural foods are acidic.Ex : oranges, lemons, apples, tomatoes, cheese and yoghurt contain natural acids, such as citric acid, that give them their characteristically sharp taste.
26 ACID STRENGTHThis acid strength value will be different for each acid.The weaker the acid the higher level required to lower the pH.
27 ACID STRENGTHAcid strength values with this model system at pH values from 2.5 to 4.0
28 PHOSPHATE Function : Application in Food: 2. Suplement 3. Emulsifying 1. Chelator2. Suplement3. EmulsifyingApplication in Food:Cola, root beer, sarsaparilla, carbonated beverages.Clarifying & acidify collagenAcidify jam & jellies
29 CITRIC ACID Naturally present in lemon juices. Produced by fermentation “molds” on sugar syrups or molasses.High Solubility (50% in water) confectioneryFunction :- Maintain colour, aroma, vitamins of canned food- Control pH in confectionery- chelator, antioxidantHard candy prefer to citric acid powder
31 Tartaric Acid Prepared from potassium hydrogen tartrate Chelator Generally used in Baking powderApplication : butter, jam, jellyFlavor in candy & confectionery (Hard candies)
32 ACETIC ACID Application in Food : Mayonnaise, sauce, pickle. Function :Control pH, flavor & shelf life.
33 Ascorbic Acid Rarely used as acidulants Strong reductor Antioxidant Stabilized by citric acid
34 4. emulsifier Definition : Substance which stabilizes an emulsion by increasing its kinetic stability.One class of emulsifiers is known as surface active substances or surfactants.Type :Lecithin (egg yolk, soy), honey, and mustard, where a variety of chemicals in the mucilage surrounding the seed hull act as emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate.
35 Le ch i t i n Function : Improve palatability Improve visibility Stabilize the emulsion (flavor-oil)Inhibit the separation between product and its constituents (ex : oil)Control grain and crystalFunction :Control of viscositiesSlab releasing agentDecelerate of candy ossification , ex : starch base candyInhibit of fat bloomDecelerate of Glaze less
36 Emulsifier in Food Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are common in food. Vinaigrette – vegetable oil in vinegar; if prepared with only oil and vinegar (without an emulsifier), yields an unstable emulsion.Mayonnaise – vegetable oil in lemon juice or vinegar, with egg yolk lecithin as emulsifier.Hollandaise sauce – similar to mayonnaise.Crema in espresso – coffee oil in water (brewed coffee), unstable.
37 5. antioxidant Definition Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules.Oxidation a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent.Oxidation produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells.Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves.
38 Food Antioxidants Antioxidants are often reducing agents such as 1) Thiols2) Ascorbic acid or polyphenols.Water soluble Ascorbic acid, glutathione, lipoic acid, uric acidLipid Soluble Carotenes, ubiquinol, tocopherol
39 Antioxidant Type : Propil Galate BHA BHT Function : Inhibit oxidative breakdown of fat = extending shelf life candy
40 6. Gelatinizing Definition : Substances that form gels and foams or act as stabilizers.Some of these may be used as glazing coating.Increase viscosity, provide body, increase stability, and improve suspension in aqueous solution.Frequently are based on :polysaccharides (starches, vegetable gums, pectin, alginate, karegenan), or proteins.
41 Gelatinizing Type Type Thickener Stabilizer Emulsifier Alginic acid + Sodium alginatePotasium alginateCalcium alginateAgar-CarrageenanEucheuma seaweedLocust bean gum (Carob)Gelatine+ function and can be applied as- can not be used as
42 Agar-agar Eastern name of seaweed. Extracted from red seaweed “Gelideum”.Japan was the only supplier until 1939.Agar can be produced also from Gigartina, Gracilaria, Furcellaria, ChondrusAgar is basically the sulfuric ester of a long chain galactan.The seaweed is extracted by boiling strainingextruded into powderThe jelly forming power is highConc. 0,5% firm jelly
43 Agar-agar Jelly production using agar texture unstabile Syneresis Pectin, starch, gum arab can be used as substituents in jelly production
44 AlginatesDiscovery of Alginic acid which contain iodine increase alginate production.Seaweed “Macrocystis pyrifera” washed milled hot alkali treatmentclarification added with CaCl2 precipitate Ca-alginate.Application : stabilizer, emulsifier, thickener of ice cream, chocolate, milk suspension, cake icings and filling, chocolate syrupAlginate gels do not disperse in the mouth
45 Carrageenan Seaweed “Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stallata”. Class : linear polysaccharide.Based on the structure : kappa, iota, lambdaCarrageenan forms gels in water at conc. 0,5%Application : stabilizers in food industry, additive in chocolate syrup.
46 Xanthan GumProduced by biopolymerization “fermentation by Xanthomonas campestris”.High molecular weight natural polysaccharide.Application : liquid (soy sauce), pastes, syrupsProduct filling in bakeryIn confectionery its use to date has been inadequately pursued.It can be combined with guar and carob (locust bean) gum to increase the viscosities.
47 Gum Acacia, Gum ArabicSpecies of Acacia tree (African continent).Properties :Moisture content 12-15%.Solubility in water about 40% at 24oC.Very high viscosityMax viscosity if the pH is adjusted to 6-7Used as lozenge/tablet, glazeGum arabic don’t have special properties of the true gum.Gum arabic relative high in cost substitute with other gum.Application :Glaze, binder for lozenges, gum candy, control crystallization.
48 G u m Candy wafer sheet made by extrussion process permit easy sheeting of mass of powdered sugar plasticizing agent prevent brittle during low pHNatural water-soluble gum : arabic, locust bean, tragacant, guar, as binder, thickener, stabilizer, film formerAs binder : lozenges, bind sugar particleCandy with water content <<, gum emulsion as flavor carrierG u m
49 Guar gum, Carob GumCarob gum Locust bean tree (Ceratonia siligna) Mediterranean.Small yield = 3-4%Chem.Modif hydroxyethtyl carboxyl esters improve solubility & viscosityJelly candy add with 0,1-0,2% prevent syneresis.Guar gum derived from the seed of the Guar plant (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) India.Chemically galactomannan with specific formulation.Extracted from endosperm (after remove outer husk and germ).
50 Starch Starch Function Dusting & molding medium Gelling ingredient to jellies+gumThicken or contributes body productModified starchTo improve texture & decrease syneresisExample: corn flour, rice, potato & tapioca
51 P e c t i n Present naturally in fruits & vegetables. Gel forming agentHigh molecular weight polymerSolubility in syrup decrease due to increasing of its concentrationStabile in acid pHGalactose Galacturonic acid (pectic acids) methyl Galacturonic (Pectin’s monomer) Pectinic acid (polymethylgalacturonic)
52 Pectin’s Type High methoxyl pectins 50% or >>> the carboylic group esterifiedJellification Need the presence of soluble solid (sugar) 60-80% and acid (pH 3,1-3,6) to form gels.Jelly candy min. soluble solids 75%Low methoxyl pectins<<< than 50%Require metalic salt to form gel, usually calcium.Useful in prep. Of puddings and sauces.The relationship between gel formation, pH and soluble solids content ????
53 Waxes As glazes applied in the chocolate of sugar panning process Ex: bees wax, carnauba waxFunction : provide protection from cracking & splitting, moisture loss
54 7. saaDefinition Substance which lowers the surface tension of the medium in which it is dissolved, and/or the interfacial tension with other phases, and, accordingly, is positively adsorbed at the liquid/vapour and/or at other interfaces.Type : Glycerol monoesters, sorbitan.Function : inhibit or prevent blooming, stabilize the emulsion system.
55 Surface Active Agent Glyserol monoester Frequently used in gummy candiesreduce adhesiveness Inhibit candy adhering (on teeth)Sorbitan monoester Ester of fatty acids and sorbitan Prevent bloom in confectionery product Improve palatability
56 Aerating Agents Definition Method of introduction of air or other gas in the form of very small bubbles, into a liquid or solid products.Example : whole egg, egg albumen, egg white, gelatin.Effects of aerating agents :Density reductionTexture modificationSpecial MouthfeelChange in shelf lifeCan be applied in : Marshmallow, aerated chocolate, chewable candy
57 P ro t e i n Soy Albumen Water & syrup soluble Whipping & foaming abilities (in boiling syrup)Candy using soy albumen has darkness colour than using egg albumenMoisture retaining capabilityInfluence texture of candyAerating agent (stabilizing dispersed air cell in whipped candy)
58 GelatinGelatin as the product obtained by partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from the skin, white connective tissue and bones of animal (cattle).Application : ice cream, pie fillings.Type :Type A derived from acid treatment, isoelectric point pH 7 and pH 9.Type B derived from alkali treatment, isoelectric point pH 4,7 and pH 4,5.It swell when soaked in cold water dissolve on heating.
59 Gelatin 2 type of gelatin : Quick setter (tender, short breaking body) Slow setter (candy texture more strength)Extracted from animal skin & bone (Cattle including pork)Gelatin ossein (bone) dan collagen (skin)Properties : sheet, flake, powder, colorless, smellExpand on cold water, but soluble in hot water Form changes into jelly in low temperature.Generally used ranging from 1,5-2,5% concentration in marshmallow.Given : whipped, quality and shelflife character
60 Edible Fat Dr hewan/ tumbuhan Veget oil soybean & cotton seed = to chewy, fudges & fondantHydrogenate shortening = maximum shelf lifeCoconut oil = ‘lubricant’ in caramel/similar candy= impart pleasing, cooling sensation in the mouthCocoa butter = coatingFat, hard / soft, umumnya digunakan tidak lebih 12% pd permen, untuk menghambat absorbsi airBila dipakai sbg coating = menghambat penetrasi air & kristalisasiSoft fat= butter, margarin &peanut oil = make a shorter body
61 Coconut Bodying/bulking agent Soft center Sanding Generally use as toasted form, sweetened or unsweetenedDesiccated coconut with different kind of size