Presentation on theme: "Wine 101 Understanding Labels and Appellations Wine Focus: Cabernet Sauvignon Presented by Alphonse DiMino Wine Director, Passport Wines and Spirits."— Presentation transcript:
Wine 101 Understanding Labels and Appellations Wine Focus: Cabernet Sauvignon Presented by Alphonse DiMino Wine Director, Passport Wines and Spirits
AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS (AVAs) In the U.S., appellations (or places of origin) are called American Viticultural Areas (AVA). Unlike the AOC system in France or the DOC system in Italy, by which types of varietals grown, yield limits, viticultural methods, winemaking and maturation are all regulated, AVAs in no way regulate anything other than where the wine was produced. To be considered as an AVA, the following criteria must be met: 1. A set definition of the proposed viticultural area must be provided 2. The name of the AVA is one that is commonly or traditionally used for the area 3. Evidence must be given that the growing conditions are unique (soil, climate, topography, etc.) and distinct from the surrounding area Understanding Labels and Appellations
USA –American Viticultural Area (AVA) 85% of the grapes must come the AVA –Example: Napa Valley Red, Rutherford, Russian River Wine labeled by County must by 75% –Sonoma County By state is 75%. Some states have different laws –California is 100% By Grape Variety is 75%. Some states have own laws –Oregon is 90% When a vintage is declared, 95% of the wine must be from grapes harvested during that declared vintage Vineyard Designation: 95% of the grapes must be from the named vineyard, which must be within an AVA also named on the label Estate Bottled: 100% of the grapes must be from vineyards owned or controlled by thewinery. Both vineyard and winery must be within an AVA also named on thelabel. Wine must have been bottled at the winery.
French Wine Classifications French wine makers are required to mark their bottles with one of the four following classifications: Vin de table - When a wine can't label itself otherwise, it labels itself as a vin de table, or table wine. The wine could be made from a variety of grapes grown in different places. If it is marked vin de table française, then all of the grapes were grown in France. Although they make up almost half of France's wine production. Vin de pays - These are wines that come from a specific area which will be noted on the bottle. For example, Vin de Pays d'Oc is wine that comes from the region of Oc. This is similar to an AOC, but the geographical areas are larger and the specifications for the growing, composition, and bottling of the wine less precise. In this category you can often find a quality wine at a low price. Vin de pays makes up roughly 20 percent of France's wine production. Vin délimité de qualité supérieure (VDQS) -. This category is being eliminated and after 2011 should no longer appear on French wine labels. Vin d'appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) - This will be noted on French wine labels as "Appellation (name of the terroir) Controlée", for example Appellation Bordeaux Controlée. This indicates that the wine was produced within a strictly controlled (and sometimes astonishingly small) geographical area, from specific types of grapes, and according to specified standards all set by the appellation for that name. The label AOC is supposed to guarantee you a certain quality, a guarantee that does not always hold up. These wines make up almost 30 percent of France's wine production and are generally more expensive than the other categories of wine.
Italian wine laws distinguish Italian wine by quality, in increasing order, in four categories: Vino da tavola (VDT) –Simple table wines that carry neither a varietal name nor a vintage date. No specific rules or regulations. Vino da tavola con indicazione geografica tipica (IGT) –The wine's label must declare its specific region and may cite varietal type and vintage Vino a denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) –Their labels must state their zone of origin and the wines are required to meet certain production standards. Only approved methods of planting, cultivating and fertilizing can be employed, for example. Maximum yields are controlled, as are bottling specifications, alcohol content and aging Vino a denominazione di origine controllata e garantita (DOCG) –The most stringent of the categories, this appellation embraces all DOC assurances and further requires a producer to control and guarantee everything claimed on the wine's label: zone of origin, net contents, name of grower and bottler, place of bottling and product's alcohol strength. It is possible to better distinguish a wine adding other specifications (vine, farm, etc.) and naming it "classico" if it comes from the oldest (historical) origin place or "riserva" when it was ages more than usual by winemaker before selling.
Cabernet Sauvignon Grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates Product of a chance crossing between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France The word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France.
Cabernet Sauvignon Viticulture The grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and resistant to rot and frost One of the last major grape varieties to bud and ripen (typically 1-2 weeks after Merlot and Cabernet franc) The Cabernet grape variety has thrived in a variety of vineyard soil types, making the consideration of soil less of concern particularly for New World winemakers The vine itself is prone to vigorous yields, particularly when planted on the vigorous SO4 rootstock. Excessive yields can result in less concentrated and flavorful wine with flavors more on the green or herbaceous side. Good resistance to most grape diseases, powdery mildew being the most noted exception. It is, however, susceptible to the vine diseases Eutypella scoparia and excoriose.
Flavor Profiles and Structure High 1:12 ratio of seed (pip) to fruit (pulp)= High Phenols (Flavor) and Tannin Dark color comes from high levels of pigmentation from thick skins In some regions, climate will be more important than soil. In regions that are too cool, there is a potential for more herbaceous and green bell pepper flavors from less than ideally ripened grapes. In regions where the grape is exposed to excess warmth and over-ripening, there is a propensity for the wine to develop flavors of cooked or stewed blackcurrants. Herbaceous or green bell pepper flavor caused by pyrazines, which are more prevalent in under-ripened grapes. Pyrazine compounds are present in all Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and are gradually destroyed by sunlight as the grape continues to ripen Two other well known Cabernet Sauvignon flavors are mint and eucalyptus. Mint flavors are often associated with wine regions that are warm enough to have low pyrazine levels but are still generally cool, such as Australia's Coonawarra region and some areas of Washington State.
New World Cabernet Sauvignon Old World Cabernet Sauvignon Fruit-driven Herb and Earth-driven Black Fruit Cherries Red/Black Currants Milk Chocolate Cocoa, Mocha Oak-Scented Cedar-Scented Sweet Cigar Box Tobacco Vanilla Lilac Supple Chalky Eucalyptus/Mint Black Peppercorn
Winemaking and its influences in the Structure and Flavor Profiles Maceration periods Influences tannins The temperature of fermentation will play a role in the result, with deeper colors and more flavor components being extracted at higher temperatures while more fruit flavors are maintained at lower temperature. Oak Aging (Secondary Flavors)
Major Cabernet Sauvignon Growing Regions and Styles Bordeaux, France (Old World) Bordeaux, France (Old World) Left Bank VS Right Bank Left Bank VS Right Bank Right bank has heavy clays Right bank has heavy clays Left Bank is gravelly Left Bank is gravelly
Italy (Old World) First introduced to the Piedmont region in 1820 First introduced to the Piedmont region in 1820 Tuscany (Super Tuscans) Tuscany (Super Tuscans) Tignanello (Sangiovese-Cabernet Sauvignon) first released in 1978 by AntinoriTignanello (Sangiovese-Cabernet Sauvignon) first released in 1978 by Antinori Cabernet Sauvignon in Tuscany is characterized by ripe black cherry flavors that can give a perception of sweetness as well as strong notes of black currant. The wines typically reach an alcohol level around 14% but can still maintain notable levels of acidity.Cabernet Sauvignon in Tuscany is characterized by ripe black cherry flavors that can give a perception of sweetness as well as strong notes of black currant. The wines typically reach an alcohol level around 14% but can still maintain notable levels of acidity. Spain (Old World) Found in every growing region. 6 th most planted grape Found in every growing region. 6 th most planted grape Often blended with Tempranillo Often blended with Tempranillo Most prominent in the Catalan wine region of PenedèsMost prominent in the Catalan wine region of Penedès
USA (New World) California California Napa ValleyNapa Valley Rutherford, Stag’s Leap District, Spring Mountain District, Howell Mountain, Mt.Veeder, Diamond Mountain District Rutherford, Stag’s Leap District, Spring Mountain District, Howell Mountain, Mt.Veeder, Diamond Mountain District Thinner, less fertile soils which produces smaller berries with more intense flavors, reminiscent of Bordeaux wines that require years of aging to mature.Thinner, less fertile soils which produces smaller berries with more intense flavors, reminiscent of Bordeaux wines that require years of aging to mature. Wines tend to have deep inky colors and strong berry aromas (Black Fruit)Wines tend to have deep inky colors and strong berry aromas (Black Fruit) SonomaSonoma Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Sonoma Mountain Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Sonoma Mountain Tendency to feature anise and black olive notes Tendency to feature anise and black olive notes Paso RoblesPaso Robles Fastest growing wine region in the State. Fastest growing wine region in the State. The area benefits from the largest swing between high daytime and low nighttime temperatures of any region in California The area benefits from the largest swing between high daytime and low nighttime temperatures of any region in California
Washington State Washington State Grows magnificently in Washington state and ages well. Its character can emerge as black currants, cherry, berry, chocolate, leather, mint, herbs, bell peppers or any combination of the above. Characterized by its fruitiness and easy drinking styles that are not overly tannicGrows magnificently in Washington state and ages well. Its character can emerge as black currants, cherry, berry, chocolate, leather, mint, herbs, bell peppers or any combination of the above. Characterized by its fruitiness and easy drinking styles that are not overly tannic Columbia Valley,Walla Walla Valley, Horse Heaven Hills, Yakima ValleyColumbia Valley,Walla Walla Valley, Horse Heaven Hills, Yakima Valley
South America (New World) Chile Chile Colchagua ValleyColchagua Valley Maipo ValleyMaipo Valley Low acid, ripe fruit Low acid, ripe fruit Argentina Argentina MendozaMendoza often blended with Malbec often blended with Malbec and produce full, tannic wines with leather and tobacco notes leather and tobacco notes
Australia Coonawarra Coonawarra Intense fruit and minty notesIntense fruit and minty notes Barossa Valley Barossa Valley Big, full bodied, dark fruitBig, full bodied, dark fruit South Africa Stellenbosch Stellenbosch