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YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D

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Presentation on theme: "YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D"— Presentation transcript:

1 YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D

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3 ADVANTAGES FOR USING YEAST EXTRACTS
To provide or modify flavor To provide flavor enhancement To create new process flavors To reduce Sodium usage As alternative to MSG Cost reduction For friendly ingredient statement For use in fermentation media

4 DIFFERENT YEAST SOURCES FOR EXTRACT PRODUCTION
Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Baker’s Yeast - Brewer’s Yeast - Distiller’s Yeast Candida utilis (Torula Yeast) Kluyveromyces marxianus (fragilis) Saccharomyces lactis

5 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF YEAST
% Protein Total Carbohydrates Nucleic Acid Fat (Ether extractable) Total Lipids Moisture Ash

6 KEY STEPS IN AUTOLYSIS YEAST CENTRIFUGATION AUTOLYSIS
CELL WALL EXTRACTS

7 TYPICAL EXTRACT PROCESSING PROCEDURE
Adjust yeast slurry to % solids Adjust pH to around 5 Raise the temperature to 50ºC Run for hours Centrifuge - discard underflow (cell wall*) Filter the supernatant concentrate the clear supernatant Dry Package * Cell wall may be used to produce value-added products

8 WHAT TAKES PLACE DURING AUTOLYSIS
DEFINITION OF AUTOLYSIS: SELF DIGESTION DUE TO ITS OWN ENZYMES - Proteins degraded by enzymes namely proteases - Glycogen and Trehalose are degraded by carbohydrases - Nucleic acid is degraded by nucleases - Fat is degraded by lipases - Glucan is degraded by glucanases

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10 YEAST AUTOLYSIS

11 START OF AUTOLYSIS

12 CELL WALL RUPTURE DURING AUTOLYSIS

13 STATE AT END OF AUTOLYSIS

14 ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

15 ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS PAPAIN PAPAIN

16 ACID HYDROLYSIS

17 NUTRALIZE WITH BASE AFTER ACID HYDROLYSIS

18 EMPTY YEAST CELL AFTER CENTRIFUGATION
CELL WALL EXTRACT

19 MAJOR PRODUCTS OF AUTOLYSIS/HYDROLYSIS
YEAST AUTOLYSIS OR HYDROLYSIS CENTRIFUGATION CELL WALL EXTRACTS

20 CURRENT/FUTURE TRENDS
Develop extracts with high 5’-levels (Natural) Produce 5’- extracts from Brewer’s Develop low-sodium flavor extracts Develop high glutamate extracts (Natural) Develop extracts with characteristic flavors -Reaction flavors -Additives Cut processing cost Develop extracts for fermentation media

21 FLAVOR ENHANCERS MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG)
DISODIUM 5’-INOSINATE (5’-IMP) DISODIUM 5’-GUANYLATE (5’-GMP)

22 THRESHOLD VALUES: GMS/100ML (EFFECT OF SYNERGY)
Threshold values: gms/100mls _________________________ 50 : ’-IMP 5’-GMP MSG 5’-GMP:5’-IMP __________________________________________________ Distilled water 0.8 %. MSG * - * with 0.1% MSG

23 METHODS OF 5’-NUCLEOTIDE PRODUCTION
(1) Direct fermentation of sugars into 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP (2) Direct fermentation of sugars into nucleosides with subsequent phosphorylation into corresponding nucleotides. (3) Degradation of RNA using phosphodiesterase enzyme. Subsequent conversion of 5’-AMP to 5’-IMP using adenylic deaminase enzyme. (4) Any combination of above three procedures

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26 CRITICAL STEPS IN 5’-NUCLEOTIDES PRODUCTION
Yeast Heat to 95ºC To release RNA Papain Treatment to increase yield Centrifugation RP-1 Treatment ’- GMP + 5’- AMP Deamizyme Treatment ’-AMP to 5’-IMP Filtration Pasteurization Concentration Drying

27 PROCESS FLAVORINGS OR REACTION FLAVORS

28 MAILLARD REACTION - UP-STREAM
REDUCING SUGAR + AMINO ACID N-GLYCOSYLAMINE OR N-FRUCTOSYLAMINE AMADORI OR HEYNS REARRANGEMENT AMINO ACIDS FLAVOR STRECKER AMADORI OR COLOR DEGRADATION HEYNS COMPOUNDS (DICARBONYLS)

29 SOME EXAMPLES OF PROCESSED FLAVOR DEVELOPMENT
XYLOSE + CYSTEINE + PROLINE + IMP + ASCORBIC ACID BEEF FLAVOR 121°C, pH 6, 1.5hrs GLUTAMIC ACID +CYSTEINE +ALANINE +IMP + GLYCINE + VEG. OIL CHICKEN FLAVOR 100°C, pH 6, 4hrs GLUCOSE + GLUTAMIC ACID + CYSTEINE + ALANINE + GLYCINE + THIMINE +IMP + VEG. OIL PORK FLAVOR

30 SUMMARY WE COVERED: - DIFFERENT YEASTS USED IN PRODUCTION OF EXTRACTS
- TECHNIQUES APPLIED FOR AUTOLYSIS & HYDROLYSIS - DOWN-STREAM PROCESSING - PRODUCTION OF FLAVOR ENHANCERS - SYNERGESTIC EFFECT OF FLAVOR ENHANCERS - PROCESS FLAVORINGS - CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

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