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YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 YEAST EXTRACTS FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE Tilak Nagodawithana. Ph.D

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3 ADVANTAGES FOR USING YEAST EXTRACTS To provide or modify flavor To provide or modify flavor To provide flavor enhancement To provide flavor enhancement To create new process flavors To create new process flavors To reduce Sodium usage To reduce Sodium usage As alternative to MSG As alternative to MSG Cost reduction Cost reduction For friendly ingredient statement For friendly ingredient statement For use in fermentation media For use in fermentation media

4 DIFFERENT YEAST SOURCES FOR EXTRACT PRODUCTION Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Baker’s Yeast - Brewer’s Yeast - Distiller’s Yeast Candida utilis (Torula Yeast) Candida utilis (Torula Yeast) Kluyveromyces marxianus (fragilis) Kluyveromyces marxianus (fragilis) Saccharomyces lactis Saccharomyces lactis

5 APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF YEAST % Protein51.0 Total Carbohydrates24.7 Nucleic Acid 7.0 Fat (Ether extractable) 1.2 Total Lipids 6.8 Moisture 5.0 Ash 7.5

6 KEY STEPS IN AUTOLYSIS KEY STEPS IN AUTOLYSIS YEAST YEAST AUTOLYSIS AUTOLYSIS CENTRIFUGATION CENTRIFUGATION CELL WALL EXTRACTS

7 TYPICAL EXTRACT PROCESSING PROCEDURE Adjust yeast slurry to % solids Adjust yeast slurry to % solids Adjust pH to around 5 Adjust pH to around 5 Raise the temperature to 50ºC Raise the temperature to 50ºC Run for hours Run for hours Centrifuge - discard underflow (cell wall*) Centrifuge - discard underflow (cell wall*) Filter the supernatant Filter the supernatant concentrate the clear supernatant concentrate the clear supernatant Dry Dry Package Package * Cell wall may be used to produce value-added products

8 WHAT TAKES PLACE DURING AUTOLYSIS DEFINITION OF AUTOLYSIS: SELF DIGESTION DUE TO ITS OWN ENZYMES - Proteins degraded by enzymes namely proteases - Glycogen and Trehalose are degraded by carbohydrases - Nucleic acid is degraded by nucleases - Fat is degraded by lipases - Glucan is degraded by glucanases

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10 YEAST AUTOLYSIS

11 START OF AUTOLYSIS

12 CELL WALL RUPTURE DURING AUTOLYSIS

13 STATE AT END OF AUTOLYSIS

14 ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

15 PAPAIN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

16 ACID HYDROLYSIS

17 NUTRALIZE WITH BASE AFTER ACID HYDROLYSIS

18 CELL WALL EXTRACT EMPTY YEAST CELL AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

19 MAJOR PRODUCTS OF AUTOLYSIS/HYDROLYSIS MAJOR PRODUCTS OF AUTOLYSIS/HYDROLYSIS YEAST YEAST AUTOLYSIS OR HYDROLYSIS AUTOLYSIS OR HYDROLYSIS CENTRIFUGATION CENTRIFUGATION CELL WALL EXTRACTS

20 CURRENT/FUTURE TRENDS CURRENT/FUTURE TRENDS Develop extracts with high 5’-levels (Natural) Develop extracts with high 5’-levels (Natural) Produce 5’- extracts from Brewer’s Produce 5’- extracts from Brewer’s Develop low-sodium flavor extracts Develop low-sodium flavor extracts Develop high glutamate extracts (Natural) Develop high glutamate extracts (Natural) Develop extracts with characteristic flavors Develop extracts with characteristic flavors -Reaction flavors -Additives Cut processing cost Cut processing cost Develop extracts for fermentation media Develop extracts for fermentation media

21 FLAVOR ENHANCERS FLAVOR ENHANCERS MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG) MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG) DISODIUM 5’-INOSINATE (5’-IMP) DISODIUM 5’-INOSINATE (5’-IMP) DISODIUM 5’-GUANYLATE (5’-GMP) DISODIUM 5’-GUANYLATE (5’-GMP)

22 THRESHOLD VALUES: GMS/100ML (EFFECT OF SYNERGY) THRESHOLD VALUES: GMS/100ML (EFFECT OF SYNERGY) Threshold values: gms/100mls Threshold values: gms/100mls_________________________ 50 : 50 5’-IMP 5’-GMP MSG 5’-GMP:5’-IMP__________________________________________________ Distilled water %. MSG * - * with 0.1% MSG

23 METHODS OF 5’-NUCLEOTIDE PRODUCTION (1) Direct fermentation of sugars into 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP and 5’-IMP (2) Direct fermentation of sugars into nucleosides with subsequent phosphorylation into corresponding nucleotides. (3) Degradation of RNA using phosphodiesterase enzyme. Subsequent conversion of 5’-AMP to 5’-IMP using adenylic deaminase enzyme. (4) Any combination of above three procedures

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26 CRITICAL STEPS IN 5’-NUCLEOTIDES PRODUCTION Yeast Yeast Heat to 95ºC To release RNA Heat to 95ºC To release RNA Papain Treatment to increase yield Papain Treatment to increase yieldCentrifugation RP-1 Treatment 5’- GMP + 5’- AMP RP-1 Treatment 5’- GMP + 5’- AMP Deamizyme Treatment 5’-AMP to 5’-IMP Deamizyme Treatment 5’-AMP to 5’-IMP Filtration Pasteurization Concentration Drying

27 PROCESS FLAVORINGS OR REACTION FLAVORS

28 MAILLARD REACTION - UP-STREAM REDUCING SUGAR + AMINO ACID N-GLYCOSYLAMINE REDUCING SUGAR + AMINO ACID N-GLYCOSYLAMINEOR N-FRUCTOSYLAMINE N-FRUCTOSYLAMINE AMADORI OR AMADORI OR HEYNS HEYNS REARRANGEMENT REARRANGEMENT AMINO ACIDS AMINO ACIDS FLAVORSTRECKER AMADORI OR FLAVORSTRECKER AMADORI OR COLOR DEGRADATION HEYNS COMPOUNDS COLOR DEGRADATION HEYNS COMPOUNDS(DICARBONYLS)

29 SOME EXAMPLES OF PROCESSED FLAVOR DEVELOPMENT XYLOSE + CYSTEINE + PROLINE + IMP + ASCORBIC ACID XYLOSE + CYSTEINE + PROLINE + IMP + ASCORBIC ACID BEEF FLAVOR 121°C, pH 6, 1.5hrs 121°C, pH 6, 1.5hrs GLUTAMIC ACID +CYSTEINE +ALANINE +IMP + GLYCINE + GLUTAMIC ACID +CYSTEINE +ALANINE +IMP + GLYCINE + VEG. OIL CHICKEN FLAVOR 100°C, pH 6, 4hrs GLUCOSE + GLUTAMIC ACID + CYSTEINE + ALANINE + GLUCOSE + GLUTAMIC ACID + CYSTEINE + ALANINE + GLYCINE + THIMINE +IMP + VEG. OIL PORK FLAVOR 100°C, pH 6, 4hrs

30 SUMMARY WE COVERED: - DIFFERENT YEASTS USED IN PRODUCTION OF EXTRACTS - TECHNIQUES APPLIED FOR AUTOLYSIS & HYDROLYSIS - DOWN-STREAM PROCESSING - PRODUCTION OF FLAVOR ENHANCERS - SYNERGESTIC EFFECT OF FLAVOR ENHANCERS - PROCESS FLAVORINGS - CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS

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