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Herbs and Spices Objective: Gain some familiarity with the cultivation, preservation, and use of various herbs and spices with emphasis on herbs.

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Presentation on theme: "Herbs and Spices Objective: Gain some familiarity with the cultivation, preservation, and use of various herbs and spices with emphasis on herbs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Herbs and Spices Objective: Gain some familiarity with the cultivation, preservation, and use of various herbs and spices with emphasis on herbs

2 Herb or Spice? Herb Green leaf or ___________________ stem of a flowering plant used fresh or dried for flavor, scent, or medicinal properties Grown in _____________________ climates Generally more subtle in flavor Spice Roots, seeds, fruits, flowers, or bark used for similar purposes; usually earthy in color Grown in the ____________________ Generally more pungent Some plants can be both: cilantro/coriander, anise

3 Uses of Herbs & Spices The volatile oils contained in herbs and spices have many useful properties Preservation Allows a _______________________ shelf life for food in lieu of refrigeration due to antibacterial properties or can mask taste of spoilage. Flavor and Aroma Adds a pleasant smell to substances like incense, perfumes, tinctures, and cosmetics. Ceremony Herbs and spices are used in _____________________ events such as embalming, cremation, marriage, and religious celebrations. Medicine Health benefits derived from _______________________ beliefs and scientific facts

4 Cultivating Herbs Require moderate supplies of fertility and organic matter Good _____________________ and air exchange essential Prevent spread of disease Raised beds improve drainage Most herbs easily started from seed Exceptions that should be propagated vegetatively: Annuals: rosemary, thyme, and mint Perennials: French tarragon (_________________ not viable) Limited pest problems ________________________ and flavors often have evolved as pest deterrents

5 Harvesting Herbs Can remove leaves carefully throughout growing season. _______________________ can damage plant, but ____________________harvesting will promote vigorous foliage growth Remove flowers to keep herbs growing vegetatively Collect just after the dew dries in the morning Herbs will have most flavor just before the plant __________________ ___________________ perennials will have to be taken indoors to survive an Illinois winter

6 Cooking with Herbs Fine vs. Robust Herbs _________________ herbs are added to food while it is being cooked ____________________ herbs may be eaten uncooked, in salads, or sprinkled over other dishes Some can be used both ways (i.e. parsley) Fresh herbs preferable to ______________________ ones Drying will cause loss of some essential oils and flavors, even under ideal conditions Ethnic herb assortments: Italian: basil, oregano, fennel, flat-leaf parsley, garlic Mexican: cilantro/coriander, basil, chile peppers, tomatillo

7 Cooking with Herbs Place herbs/spices in oil and allow flavor to infuse into the oil and use for cooking Make marinades and sauces for meat, poultry, or fish Rosemary with lamb Make herb butter, cheese, or stuffing

8 Cooking with herbs Wide variety of herbal teas Some contain cancer- fighting antioxidants Use as ________________ Eat fresh Basil over fresh mozzarella and tomato in bruschetta

9 Storing Herbs _____________________________________ herbs only if necessary; may remove some flavor Exposure to air and light will cause loss of flavor and aroma Can last 1-2 years under ideal conditions Store _________________________; pulverize just before use Drying herbs: Dry rapidly in a warm, dark room at temps below 100°F Can place in bags with 1-2 inches of stem showing and tie loosely Can place leaves on a tray and turn daily Can even dry in microwave, but may cause damage Freezing herbs: Place herbs in labeled plastic bags; individually or in mixtures Chop finely and freeze in ice cube trays,______________________ herbs and ____________________ water

10 Origins of Herbs & Spices New World Allspice Annatto Chilies Paprika Echinacea Juniper Horseradish Tamarind Vanilla Europe Bay Chives Dill Oregano Parsley Rosemary Sage Tarragon Thyme Caraway Fennel Lavender Marjoram Mint Savory Chamomile Lemon balm Near East Anise seed Borage Cumin Cilantro Fenugreek Poppy Sesame Marigold Pyrethrum Coriander Cilantro Saffron India Basil Cardamom Peppercorn Turmeric Cinnamon Mace Nutmeg Far East Garlic Juniper Lemongrass Star Anise Cilantro Cloves Ginger Galangal Chives


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