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Herbs, Spices, Minerals, and Flavoring Agents Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Herbs, Spices, Minerals, and Flavoring Agents Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Herbs, Spices, Minerals, and Flavoring Agents Chapter 11

2 Objectives Explain the differences between herbs, spices, and minerals List commonly used herbs, spices, and salts and identify their global sources Describe common herb and spice blends

3 Objectives (cont’d.) List commonly used oils and their applications Describe the process for making infused and flavored oils Explain the smoke point of oils

4 Objectives (cont’d.) List commonly used vinegars and their applications Summarize the process for making infused and flavored vinegars Define condiments as flavoring agents and give examples

5 Product Identification Herbs –Leaves of shrubs and herbaceous plants Spices –Come from roots, barks, buds, seeds, berries or fruit of tropical trees, plants, and shrubs

6 Product Identification (cont’d.) Minerals –Crystals formed by different geological processes –Mined from the earth or produced by evaporating water Flavoring agents –Artificial or natural substances added to foods to enhance flavor

7 Herbs Herbs have medicinal properties –Natural antioxidants and vitamins When choosing herbs, look for brightly colored stems Use immediately after purchasing –Or wrap in damp towel and place in sealed container for up to five days

8 11.1 Basil11.2 Bay Leaf11.3 Chives 11.4 Cilantro11.5 Dill11.6 Marjoram © Randy Van Dam 2008

9 11.7 Mint11.8 Oregano11.9a Curly Parsley 11.9b Flat Leaf Parsley11.10 Rosemary11.11 Sage © Randy Van Dam 2008

10 11.12 Tarragon11.13 Thyme © Randy Van Dam 2008

11 Spices Spices have a more intense flavor than herbs Most peppercorns are grown in India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Malaysia Saffron is a rare and expensive spice –Flowers are picked by hand and sold by the stamen or thread, or in ground form

12 11.14 Cinnamon bark, sticks and ground cinnamon 11.15 Galangal11.16 Ginger root 11.17 Horseradish 11.18 Lemongrass11.19 Nutmeg and Mace © Randy Van Dam 2008

13 11.20 Brown and white mustard seeds with ground mustard powder 11.21 Parsley root11.22a Peppercorn bush 11.22b Assorted peppercorns 11.22c Whole, crushed and ground peppercorns 11.23 Assorted colored sesame seeds © Randy Van Dam 2008

14 11.25 Star Anise11.24 Saffron Threads11.26 Tamarind Pods and Seeds 11.27 Vanilla bean11.28 Wasabi powder © Randy Van Dam 2008

15 Storage and Handling Fresh herbs/spices only last a few days Dried forms can be successfully stored –Crushed and ground forms do not last as long as whole forms Can buy whole and crush or grind as needed Factors that affect spice quality –Light, humidity, oxygen, and heat

16 Market Forms Various processed forms are available –Whole –Ground –Granulated –Extractives –Herb and spice blends

17 Minerals Salt is the mineral most used in cooking –Reasons for using salt Preventing mold and bacteria growth Acting as a brake for chemical reactions produced by yeast in baked goods Brightening food flavors Decreasing sourness of acids and increasing sweetness of sugar in dishes

18 Types of Salt Canning or pickling salt Coarse salt Flake salt Grinder salt 11.30 Canning or pickling salt11.31 Coarse salt © Randy Van Dam 2008

19 Types of Salt (cont’d.) Kosher salt Popcorn salt Rock salt Sea salt Table salt 11.34 Kosher salt11.36 Rock salt © Randy Van Dam 2008

20 Types of Salt (cont’d.) Black salt Brazilian sea salt Grey salt Celtic salt Hawaiian sea salt 11.40 Brazilian sea salt11.41 Celtic salt © Randy Van Dam 2008

21 Types of Salt (cont’d.) Himalayan pink salt Italian sea salt New Zealand sea salt Organic salt Smoked sea salt 11.47c Black smoked sea salt © Randy Van Dam 2008

22 Flavoring Agents Dehydrated vegetables can be used as seasonings –Onions, garlic, sweet red pepper, and mint –Freeze-dried chives and shallots Condiments –Combinations of herbs and spices with a liquid base (examples: mustard, relish)

23 Oils Oils are liquid fats from plants or animals Cold-pressed oils are made by pressing vegetables on an expeller press –Friction of pressing heats the oil Some oils with delicate tastes must be pressed in a temperature-controlled environment to reduce heating

24 Oils (cont’d.) All oils are sensitive to damage from heat, light and oxygen exposure Smoke point is the temperature at which the oil will start to smoke –Vegetable oils can handle higher temperatures than animal oils –Oil begins to break down at the smoke point and must be discarded

25 Oils (cont’d.) Different types of oils –Avocado, coconut, corn, cottonseed, grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, palm, peanut, pine seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed (canola), safflower, sesame, soy, sunflower, vegetable (blend), and walnut

26 Vinegars Vinegar means “sour wine” –Made by exposing wine with less than 18 percent alcohol to air –Bacteria in air reacts with residual yeast to create mother (layer of mold) Reacts with alcohol to change into acetic acid

27 Vinegars (cont’d.) Vinegar types –Wine, balsamic, cider, malt, spirit, rice and flavored vinegars

28 Summary Herbs and spices are used to add flavor to foods –Fresh herbs are very perishable –Dried herbs last longer –Spices are freshest when purchased whole and crushed or ground as needed There are many different types of salt

29 Summary (cont’d.) Dehydrated vegetables can be used as flavoring agents Condiments are flavorings with a liquid base There are many types of oils Vinegar is made from wine, beer or spirits

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