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Chapter 9 Salads and Garnishes.

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1 Chapter 9 Salads and Garnishes

2 Types of Salads 5 main types (common)
1. Appetizer salad = stimulate the appetite and have fresh, crisp ingredients, lightly coated with a tangy, flavorful dressing ex. Shrimp cocktail, needs to be light enough for a first course 2. Accompaniment salad= light and flavorful, but not too rich, complement the meal ex potato salad, just be careful not to serve a starchy salad if the main entrée also contains a starch Also a heavy accompaniment salad goes best with a light entree

3 Types of Salads 3. Main Course Salad = needs to be large enough to serve as a full meal and also contain a protein ingredient. Ex. Chef Salad 4. Separate Course Salads = cleanse the palate after a rich dinner and before a dessert Ex. Bibb lettuce 5. Dessert Salad = usually sweet and often contain fruits, sweetened gelatin, nuts, cream, and whipped cream. Ex. Gelatin MUST BE HEARTIE Vegetable Salad = contains vegetables as the main ingredients, resting on greens

4 Types of Salads Cooked Salad = contain cooked foods as their main ingredients – meat, poultry, fish, eggs, starches, and vegetables (can be marinated, all ingredients must be cut neatly) Fruit Salad = very popular desserts or as part of combination lunch plates Most fruit salads are arrange on plate Some fruit discolor after they are peeled – use lemon juice to help with discoloration Fruits do not hold well if they have been cut and peeled Dressings for fruit and usually sweet

5 Types of Salads Combination = combinations of different kinds of ingredients or even two different kinds of salads ex chef salad Gelatin = extracting it from boiled bones (pg 356) Acid weakens the properties of gelatin Dissolves at about 100°F Make gelatin set up faster use half cold water Raw pineapple and papaya should never be added to gelatin, it contains enzymes that dissolve the gelatin Add solid ingredients when the gelatin is partially set Always drain canned fruits well Too much gelatin can make the salad rubbery

6 Four Basic Parts of a Salad (pg. 349)
Base or underline = usually a layer of salad greens that line the plate (iceberg for a bowl) Body = the main ingredient (mixed veggies or protein based) Garnish = adds color and appeal to the salad and sometimes flavor Dressing = are liquids or semi-liquids used to flavor salads, sometimes called cold sauces because their purpose is to flavor, moisten and enrich foods Bound Salads = because the mayo holds, or binds the ingredients together Description – Crabmeat-Mayo Salad on a bed of Mixed Greens served with Garlic Croutons and Herbed Vinaigrette

7 Salad Greens Arugula = Pungent, distinctive flavor; tender, perishable; dark green Belgian endive = Narrow, pointed heads, 4-6 inches long; pale yellow to green to white – good for appetizers or base of a salad Bibb = Smaller and more delicate, dark green outside and creamy yellow inside, sm. Boston = Small round heads, with soft, fragile leaves; deep green outside, white inside, buttery texture, does not keep well excellent for a salad base

8 Salad Greens Chicory = Narrow, curly leaves; firm texture; bitter flavor; outside dark green, inside yellow or white – do not serve alone use as a base Chinese cabbage = Long, light green heads with broad, white center ribs; tender and crisp, mild cabbage Dandelion greens = Young, tender leavers; rich green color; best in spring Escarole = Broad, thick leaves, also in bunches; coarse texture, slightly bitter flavor, needs to be mixed, can be braised

9 Salad Greens Iceberg = Most popular in America, firm, compact head with crisp, mild tasting pale green leaves – good underliner Loose-leaf = Grows in bunches; soft, delicate leaves with curly edges; green or shades of red, wilts easily, adds color Radicchio = Attractive red-leafed Italian variety of chicory; white ribs and small, round heads, crunchy texture, slightly bitter Romaine = Elongated head with dark green, coarse leaves, crisp texture and full sweet, mild flavor; keeps well, easy to handle, main ing. In a Caesar Salad

10 Salad Greens Sorrel = Small to medium-sized, semi-curly, spade-shaped leaves; white to green stems, can be toxic in large amounts Spinach = Dark, leafy green leaves Sprouts = Small, round leaves on tender stalks; delicate texture; peppery, pungent flavor Watercress = Small, dark green, oval leaves; pungent, peppery flavor

11 Cleaning and Preparing Salads
Keep greens refrigerated Clean greens thoroughly (repeat washing) DIP THEM IN AND OUT OF WATER – DON’T SOAK Carefully remove the core (Iceberg) –TWIST OUT Chill all ingredients Dry the greens Wash your hands thoroughly Remove any tough stems or wilted spots Tear or cut greens Toss the greens (dressing) Place the salad on chilled plates Garnish Clean and sanitize your knives, cutting board and other utensils – including your sink Keep the salad chilled once it’s prepared and the plate too

12 9.1 Questions (pg. 358) Write out all Questions
The four basic parts of any salad are the _____,_____,______&______. Always__________canned fruits. To make sure the salad greens will be crisp,_____them and store them in a ______wrapped loosely in____ _____ and ______ ______.

13 9.1 Questions Continued Match the salad with it’s description
Dessert e) Waldorf Salad Appetizer f) Chef Salad Accompaniment g) Classic Coleslaw Main-Course h) Light salad w/bibb lettuce lightly dressed with vinaigrette Separate-Course i) Hawaiian salad w/pineapple, marshmallows w/whip cream and almond cookie Combination j) Petite shrimp cocktail Fruit k) Fresh crabmeat salad with tomato and lemon wedges and avocados

14 Dressings, Dips, and Condiments
Chapter 9.2 Dressings, Dips, and Condiments

15 Salad Dressings Basic dressing are vinaigrette, which is made of oil and vinegar; emulsified vinaigrette, and mayonnaise Basic vinaigrette includes approximately three parts oil to one part vinegar, combined slowly until a homogeneous mixture is formed, serve immediately Salad dressings should e prepared in quantities that will last no more than three days Emulsified Vinaigrette dressing = thick and coat the ingredients more heavily

16 How to Make Emulsified Vinaigrette Dressing
Beat the egg yolks until they are frothy Add a small amount of vinegar or lemon juice Gradually mix in 2/3 or the oil, whipping the mixture constantly Add the remainder of the vinegar or lemon juice and bland well Gradually mix in the remainder of the oil and any additional seasoning or flavoring ingredients Serve the dressing at once or store it under refrigeration

17 Salad Dressings Mayonnaise = most stable emulsified dressing, perfect mayo is creamy, pale ivory, but not too thick Mayonnaise and mayo-based dressings coat salad ingredients and bind them together Bound Salad ex. Egg salad When portioning out use a scoop for a more accurate measurement Tarragon, balsamic vinegars and olive oil should be used sparingly in salads because they have a strong flavor

18 Homemade Mayo 1 Egg yolk 2 T. Lemon juice 1 t. Dry mustard 1 t. Sugar
¼ t. Salt Dash of red pepper 1 C. Veg. oil

19 Directions (MAYO) Beat egg yolk, 1 T. lemon juice, mustard, sugar salt and red pepper with mixture MED speed just until blended Beat in oil, 1 drop at a time; increasing rate as the mixture thickens Beat in remaining lemon juice and refrigerates Makes 1 cup

20 Types of Oil Corn Oil – light golden color, nearly tasteless
Cottonseed oil, Soybean Oil, Canola Oil, Safflower Oil – bland, nearly tasteless Walnut oil – Distinctive flavor, expensive; used mostly in elegant restaurants with specialty salads Olive Oil – distinctive, fruity flavor; greenish color (different pressings) Winterized oil = been treated so it will remain a clear liquid when chilled

21 Types of Vinegars Cider Vinegar = made from apples, brown color, slightly sweet taste White/Distilled = Neutral flavor Wine Vinegar = red or white, wine flavor Flavored Vinegar = flavor of other products added to it Sherry Vinegar = Made from sherry wine Balsamic Vinegar = Special wine vinegar aged in wooden barrels, dark brown color, sweet taste Specialty Vinegar = Malt vinegar, rice vinegar and vinegars flavored with fruits

22 Dips and Condiments Condiments = cooked or prepared flavorings, such as horseradish, ketchup, relishes, prepared sauces and dips. Dips = can be served hot or cold and as an accompaniment to other foods Guacamole – avocado dip Salsa – peppers, onions and tomatoes Hummus – chick peas with garlic and tahini

23 9.2 Questions Write out all questions and answers
Emulsified vinaigrette contains_____, but regular vinaigrette does not. The normal ratio of dressing to greens in a salad is three parts______ to one part_____. Freshly-made salad dressings should be stored for only________. The most stable emulsified dressing is_______. _________ dressings are thick and coat salad ingredients more heavily.

24 9.2 Continued Indicate whether each dressing below is an oil and vinegar dressing or a mayonnaise-based dressing. Louis dressing Basic French dressing Thousand island dressing Dijon vinaigrette Russian dressing Oriental vinaigrette Roquefort dressing Blue cheese dressing Italian dressing

25 9.3 The Art of Garnishing

26 Garnishing Plating = means arranging the presentation of food items on the serving plate or dish. Classical French Garnishing = what many modern chefs call accompaniments = to a main entrée (pg. 366 – you need to know them)

27 Lemons – dip edges in paprika for color
Common Garnishes Pg. 368 Parsley Cucumbers Mushroom Caps – to keep them white simmer them is salted water with butter and lemon juice Radishes Scallion Brushes Pickles Frosted Grapes Lemons – dip edges in paprika for color Toast Points Edible Flowers = pansy, primrose, rose petals, violets – washed thoroughly

28 Profiterole = tiny, unsweetened cream puff shells
Consommés = rich, clarified stocks or broths, are named after their garnishes ex consommé julienne Toppings for soup: Chopped parsley of chives Toasted, sliced almonds Grated cheese Sieved egg yolks Chopped hard-cooked eggs Croutons Crumble bacon Paprika Dollop= small scoop or spoonful or sour cream or whipped cream Profiterole = tiny, unsweetened cream puff shells

29 Each group must pick one main ingredient
Lets think about what each group is going to be making on Thursday for their salads Crab Chick Tuna Fruit Pasta Gelatin Veggies Each group must pick one main ingredient

30 9.3 Questions Write out the entire question and answer
If you went with several friends to a formal French restaurant and your friends asked you to describe the following items Beef Filet Crecy Eggs Florentine Filet of Sole Provencal Chicken Vichy Beef Tips Lyonnais

31 For each garnish listed below, list one word that describes its color
9.3 Continued For each garnish listed below, list one word that describes its color Tomato wedges Parsley Fluted lemon slices Radish roses Pickle fans For each of the following entrees, choose an appropriate garnish based on color and EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER Veal with marinara sauce Scrambled eggs Green bean casserole Black bean soup Broiled catfish

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