Presentation on theme: "417 th WE-Heraeus-Seminar Characterization of the Quark Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks Physikzentrum Bad Honnef June 25-28, 2008 Ralf Averbeck, Heavy-Flavor."— Presentation transcript:
417 th WE-Heraeus-Seminar Characterization of the Quark Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks Physikzentrum Bad Honnef June 25-28, 2008 Ralf Averbeck, Heavy-Flavor Cross Sections at RHIC
R. Averbeck, 2 June 26, 2008 l charm and bottom from hadronic collisions l m c ~1.3 GeV, m b ~4.5 GeV hard process (m q >> QCD ), even at low p T open heavy flavor (D, c, B, b ) quarkonia (J , l heavy-ion collisions l heavy quarks are produced before the medium is formed Introduction D mesons, ’, l investigating QCD matter with hard probes l well calibrated in pp collisions l slightly affected and well understood in hadronic matter l strongly affected in a partonic medium l today's focus: calibration at RHIC vacuum hadronic matter QGP
R. Averbeck, 3 June 26, 2008 l hadronic decay channels D 0 K (BR: ~4%) D 0 K 0 (BR: ~14%) D ± K (BR: ~10%) l c pK (BR: ~5%) How to measure open heavy flavor K+K+ -- l advantage l unambiguous identification, i.e. a peak in invariant mass l disadvantages l difficult to trigger l huge combinatorial background l improvement? –resolve decay vertices –charm: c ~ m –bottom: c ~ m silicon vertex detectors
R. Averbeck, 4 June 26, 2008 l semileptonic decay channels l D 0 lX (BR: ~7%) D ± lX (BR: ~17%) l c lX (BR: ~5%) l B 0,± lX (BR: ~11%) How to measure open heavy flavor K+K+ -- l advantages l 'straight forward' trigger l no combinatorial BG l disadvantages l need to control/subtract background from other lepton sources l loss of kinematic information l continuum can NOT disentangle c & b with single leptons only
R. Averbeck, 5 June 26, central electron/photon/hadron spectrometer arms: 0.35 p 0.2 GeV/c PHENIX & STAR at RHIC 2 forward muon spectrometers: 1.2 < | | < 2.4 p 2 GeV/c l muons in forward arms l tracking l muon ID: l “absorber” l electrons in central arms l tracking l electron ID: l RICH + EMC large acceptance tracking detector: TPC l hadrons: l TPC (dE/dx) l Time-of-Flight detector l electron ID: l EMC in addition PHENIX optimized for leptons but can do hadrons STAR optimized for hadrons but can do leptons
R. Averbeck, 6 June 26, 2008 l MANY electrons sources l Dalitz decay of light neutral mesons –most important → e + e - –but also: ’ l conversion of photons –main photon source: → –in material: → e + e - l weak kaon decays –K e3, e.g.: K ± → e ± e l dielectron decays of vector mesons – → e + e - l direct/thermal radiation –conversion of direct photons in material –virtual photons: * → e + e - l heavy flavor decays need excellent BG subtraction! e ± from heavy flavor: difficulties PHOTONIC e ± NON-PHOTONIC e ± electrons are rare: e ± / ± ~ need excellent PID!
R. Averbeck, 7 June 26, 2008 Cocktail subtraction l ALL relevant background sources are measured l calculate e ± BG l BG subtraction e ± from heavy-flavor decays l performance limited by signal/background ratio l works well towards high p T –good for measurement of e ± spectra l difficult towards low p T –limited use for measurement of total cross sections PRL 96(2006) √s = 200 GeV
R. Averbeck, 8 June 26, 2008 PRL 97, (2006) √s = 200 GeV Converter subtraction l converter (known X/X 0 ) added for part of the run l converter multiplies photonic BG by KNOWN factor difference between converter in & out runs MEASURES photonic BG l performance limited by statistics in converter run l works well towards low p T –good for total cross section measurement l difficult towards high p T l excellent agreement between methods!
R. Averbeck, 9 June 26, 2008 PRL 97, (2006) l total cross section l cc = 567 57(stat)±224(sys) b e ± from heavy flavor in p+p ( √s=200 GeV ) l non-photonic e ± from c e ± and b e ± l comparison with FONLL calculation –Fixed Order Next-to-Leading Log perturbative QCD (M. Cacciari, P. Nason, R. Vogt PRL95, (2005)) –data ~ 2 x FONLL –seen also in charm yields at »DESY (photoproduction) »FNAL (hadroproduction) –consistent within large uncertainties l high p T : b is important!
R. Averbeck, 10 June 26, 2008 Background subtraction in STAR l photonic e ± BG in STAR l dominant source –photon conversions –mainly in Si detectors near vertex –conv. / Dalitz ~ 5 –compare with PHENIX: conv. / Dalitz ~ 0.5 l subtraction –large acceptance TPC –reconstruction and subtraction of conversion and Dalitz pairs (efficiency: ~ 70-80% for p T > 4 GeV/c) –remaining BG: cocktail
R. Averbeck, 11 June 26, 2008 l ratio of heavy-flavor e ± spectra to FONLL l PHENIX –spectral shape of e ± agrees with FONLL –total cross section above FONLL by a factor ~2 l STAR –shape consistent with PHENIX and FONLL –total cross section above FONLL by a factor ~4 l systematic uncertainties in pQCD are large, i.e. a factor ~2 (or even ~4: R. Vogt hep-ph/ ) PHENIX vs. STAR vs. FONLL
R. Averbeck, 12 June 26, 2008 PRL 98, (2007 ) Hot matter: Au+Au at √s NN =200 GeV PRL 98, (2007) l binary scaling of total e ± yield from heavy-flavor decays hard process production and no destruction (as expected) l high p T e ± suppression increasing with centrality l footprint of medium effects; similar to 0 (a big surprise)
R. Averbeck, 13 June 26, 2008 Hot matter: Au+Au at √s NN =200 GeV l STAR & PHENIX: consistent in nucl. modification factor R AA l normalization discrepancy does NOT depend on system size! l high p T e ± suppression - a challenge for models l what about bottom? need additional observables to address these issues!
R. Averbeck, 14 June 26, 2008 l D 0 K invariant mass analysis l main problem: S/B ratio << 1/100 need huge stat. (yield uncertainty ~ 40-50%) l currently limited to p T ≤ ~3 GeV/c –reasonable for total cross section –insufficient to address high p T suppression D-meson reconstruction in STAR PRL 94(2005) A. Shabetai, QM'08 arXiv:
R. Averbeck, 15 June 26, 2008 l muon identification at low p T (~0.2 GeV/c) l Time-of-Flight and dE/dx in the TPC Low p T muons in STAR l subtraction of BG from and K decay l distance of closest approach of tracks to primary vertex l low p T muon yield l sensitive to total charm cross section l insensitive to spectral shape
R. Averbeck, 16 June 26, 2008 l combined fit to e ±, ±, D 0 l data are consistent Total charm cross section in STAR l binary scaling of charm yield l total charm cross section ~ 1 mb l ~ 4x pQCD value (still within huge uncertainties) l ~ 2x PHENIX value
R. Averbeck, 17 June 26, 2008 Charm and bottom from e + e - pairs l e + e - inv. mass after background subtraction compared to cocktail l absolutely normalized l excellent agreement l charm & bottom accessible after subtracting the cocktail charm: integration after cocktail subtraction cc = 544 ± 39 (stat) ± 142 (sys) ± 200 (model) b from single e ± : cc = 567 57(stat)±224(sys) b simultaneous fit of charm and bottom: cc = 518 ± 47 (stat) ± 135 (sys) ± 190 (model) b bb = 3.9 ± 2.4 (stat) +3/-2 (sys) b l bottom irrelevant for total e ± yield, but crucial at high p T ! arXiv:
R. Averbeck, 18 June 26, 2008 l electron – kaon charge correlation l D decay unlike-sign eK pairs l B decay mostly like sign eK pairs (with small (1/6) admixture of unlike-sign pairs) l approach –eh (for higher statistics) invariant mass –subtract like-sign pairs from unlike-sign pairs –disentangle charm and remaining bottom contribution via (PYTHIA) simulation of charm and bottom decay kinematics Separating c e from b e (I) l the key: electron-hadron correlations l charm and bottom are different
R. Averbeck, 19 June 26, 2008 l electron-hadron azimuthal angle correlations l small angle (near side) electron and hadron are from the same decay l width of near side correlation: largely due to decay kinematics l B decay has larger "Q value" than D decay l approach –eh azimuthal angle correlation for B and D decays from PYTHIA –fit measured correlation with B/(B+D) as parameter Separating c e from b e (II) l the key: electron-hadron correlations l charm and bottom are different
R. Averbeck, 20 June 26, 2008 l electron-D 0 correlations l trigger on e from heavy-flavor decay l use D meson (reconstructed in hadronic decay) as a probe l investigate eD correlation in azimuth Separating c e from b e (III) l the key: electron-hadron correlations l charm and bottom are different
R. Averbeck, 21 June 26, 2008 l e from b / e from c ≥ 1 for p T ≥ 6 GeV/c l PHENIX & STAR: consistent with FONLL B contribution to e ± spectra l not precise enough to extract b suppression l need vertex detectors to measure charm and bottom hadrons!
R. Averbeck, 22 June 26, 2008 l high p T muons in PHENIX: 1.2<| |<2.2 l again, background subtraction is difficult Rapidity dependence of charm production
R. Averbeck, 23 June 26, 2008 l charm yield similar at mid and forward rapidity l large uncertainties everywhere l better data are needed measurement of displaced vertices Rapidity dependence of charm production
R. Averbeck, 24 June 26, 2008 l charm (& bottom) are crucial probes for the medium produced in HI RHIC l even calibration measurements are difficult large uncertainties l charm cross section / binary collision l binary scaling is observed in STAR & PHENIX l but the cross sections differ by a factor ~2 Summary from e, , D from e, e + e -
R. Averbeck, 25 June 26, 2008 l complete systematics of existing observables l PHENIX –e ± from d+Au & Cu+Cu –D reconstruction in p+p (D 0 K + - 0 ) –heavy flavor from e- pairs Outlook: near future photonic background reduced by factor ~10 l STAR –improved e ± data from running without inner silicon detectors X. Dong, Hard Probes '08
R. Averbeck, 26 June 26, 2008 l silicon vertex trackers for unambiguous resolution of displaced vertices direct D- and B-meson measurements Outlook: longer term future PHENIX STAR