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Know how. Know now.. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County Download this PowerPoint and.

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Presentation on theme: "Know how. Know now.. Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County Download this PowerPoint and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Know how. Know now.

2 Alice Henneman, MS, RD Extension Educator University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County Download this PowerPoint and a related handout at: 2003, updated May 2008, PowerPoint 2003

3 3 3 3 “An herb is the friend of physicians and the praise of cooks.” - Charlemagne

4 4 4 4 Archeologists estimate that by 50,000 B.C. primitive man had discovered parts of certain aromatic plants made food taste better. Source: American Spice Trade Association

5 5 5 5 “Spice” vs. “Herb” Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds (cloves, saffron), seeds (yellow mustard, poppy, sesame), berry (black pepper), or the fruit (allspice, paprika) of tropical plants and trees. Herbs are leaves of low-growing shrubs. Examples are parsley, chives, marjoram, thyme, basil, caraway, dill, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage and celery leaves. These can be used fresh or dried. Dried forms may be whole, crushed, or ground. Many dehydrated vegetable seasonings are available. These include onion, garlic … and shallots. Seasoning blends are mixtures of spices/herbs. Source: Ann A. Hertzler, PhD, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension

6 6 6 6 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

7 7 7 7 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

8 8 8 8 Spices and herbs can help retain flavor in your foods while cutting back on fat, sugar and salt.

9 9 9 9 “ … removing a tablespoon of fat removes about 10 grams of fat and 100 calories — an amount which could represent a 10 pound weight loss in a year. The calories in herbs and spices are far less than in breadings, batters, gravies, sauces and fried foods.” Source: Ann A. Hertzler, PhD, RD, Herbs and Spices, Virginia Cooperative Extension

10 10 1 tablespoon sugar = 45 calories Reduce or eliminate sugar by using sweet- tasting spices:  Allspice  Anise  Cardamom  Cinnamon Cloves Ginger Mace Nutmeg

11 11 Source: American Spice Trade Association  Black pepper  Garlic powder  Curry powder  Cumin  Dill seeds  Basil  Ginger  Coriander  Onion powder Savory flavors and flavors with “bite,” are the most effective in replacing the taste of salt. Examples include:

12 12 Omit the salt when cooking pasta and flavor with basil, oregano, parsley and pepper or use an Italian seasoning blend.

13 13 Use POWDERED garlic or onion rather than their SALT form. Generally, use half as much of the powdered form.

14 14 Check seasoning labels to see if “salt” or “sodium” are listed among the ingredients.

15 15 Fascinating flavor fact: The reason for Columbus’ voyage in 1492 was to seek a more direct passage to the rich spices of the Orient.

16 16 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

17 17 Experiment with the following flavor and food combinations to add pizzazz to your meals. Source: Flavor and Food Combinations adapted from information provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

18 18 Beef  Bay leaf  Marjoram  Nutmeg  Onion  Pepper  Sage  Thyme

19 19 Pork  Garlic  Onion  Sage  Pepper  Oregano

20 20 Lamb  Curry powder  Garlic  Rosemary  Mint

21 21 Poultry  Ginger  Marjoram  Oregano  Paprika  Poultry seasoning  Rosemary  Sage  Tarragon  Thyme

22 22 Fish  Curry powder  Dill  Dry mustard  Marjoram  Paprika  Pepper

23 23 Carrots  Cinnamon  Cloves  Dill  Ginger  Marjoram  Nutmeg  Rosemary  Sage

24 24 Corn  Cumin  Curry powder  Onion  Paprika  Parsley

25 25 Green Beans  Dill  Curry powder  Marjoram  Oregano  Tarragon  Thyme

26 26 Greens  Onion  Pepper

27 27 Potatoes  Dill  Garlic  Onion  Paprika  Parsley  Sage

28 28 Summer Squash  Dill  Garlic  Onion  Paprika  Parsley  Sage

29 29 Winter Squash  Cinnamon  Ginger  Nutmeg  Onion

30 30 Tomatoes  Basil  Bay leaf  Dill  Marjoram  Onion  Oregano  Parsley  Pepper

31 31 Fascinating flavor fact: In early Rome, young suitors wore a sprig of basil to signal their marital intentions. Source: American Spice Trade Association

32 32 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

33 33 When you don’t have a spice or herb blend called for in a recipe, try the following combinations as a substitution.

34 34 For each 1 teaspoon of apple pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of:  1 teaspoon cinnamon  1/8 teaspoon nutmeg

35 35 For each 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice, substitute a COMBINATION of these ground spices:  1 teaspoon cinnamon  1/4 teaspoon ginger  1/8 teaspoon nutmeg  1/8 teaspoon allspice

36 36 For each 1-1/2 teaspoon of Italian seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of:  1/4 teaspoon EACH of crumbled, dried  oregano leaves  marjoram leaves  basil leaves  1/8 teaspoon rubbed sage

37 37 For each 1 teaspoon of poultry seasoning, substitute a COMBINATION of:  3/4 teaspoon ground sage  1/4 teaspoon ground thyme

38 38 When substituting herbs, you may be more successful substituting FRESH herbs for DRIED herbs, than the other way around.

39 39 Fascinating flavor fact: “Cilantro” refers to the leaf of the coriander plant while “coriander” refers to a spice made from the seed of the same plant. “Cilantro” and “coriander” are not interchangeable in recipes.

40 40 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

41 41 Here are some guidelines for how much spices or herbs to use.

42 42 If possible, start with a tested recipe from a reliable source. If creating a recipe, begin by trying one or two spices or herbs.

43 43 The amount to add varies with the:  Type of recipe  Spice or herb  Personal preference

44 44 Approximate EQUIVALENT amounts of different forms of herbs are:  1 tablespoon finely cut fresh herbs  1 teaspoon crumbled dried herbs  1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground dried herbs

45 45 Begin with 1/4 teaspoon of most ground spices or ground dried herbs for these amounts; adjust as needed:*  4 servings  1 pound of meat  1 pint (2 cups of soup or sauce) *Remember: Use more herbs if using a crumbled dried or a fresh form. Source:

46 46  Start with 1/8 teaspoon for cayenne pepper and garlic powder; adjust as needed.  Red pepper intensifies in flavor during cooking; add in small increments.

47 47 When doubling a recipe:  DO NOT double spices and herbs.  Increase amounts by 1-1/2 times.  Taste, add more if needed.

48 48 During the Middle Ages, ladies embroidered a sprig of thyme into scarves they gave to their wandering knights. Fascinating flavor fact:

49 49 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

50 50 The time during preparation at which you add spices and herbs influences their flavor.

51 51 As a general rule, add FRESH HERBS near the end of cooking or just before serving Prolonged heating can cause flavor and aroma losses.

52 52 More delicate fresh herbs can be added a minute or two before the end of cooking or sprinkled on food before serving. Examples include:  Basil  Chives  Cilantro  Dill leaves Parsley Marjoram Mint

53 53 Less delicate fresh herbs can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Examples include:  Dill seeds  Rosemary  Tarragon  Thyme

54 54 For some foods such as breads, batters, etc., you may have to add fresh herbs at the beginning of the cooking process.

55 55 Follow these tips and techniques for best taste when adding DRIED SPICES and HERBS.

56 56 WHOLE dried spices and herbs (such as whole allspice and bay leaves):  Release flavors slower than crumbled or ground ones.  Are ideal for dishes cooking an hour or more, such as soups and stews.

57 57 GROUND dried spices and herbs:  Release their flavor quickly.  May taste best in shorter-cooking recipes or added nearer the end of longer-cooking ones.

58 58 CRUMBLED dried herbs may differ:  Milder herbs (such as basil) may flavor best added toward end of cooking.  More robust herbs (such as thyme) can stand longer cooking periods.

59 59 Freshly grinding spices (such as black pepper and nutmeg) provide more flavor than buying them already ground.

60 60 AVOID sprinkling dried spices and herbs directly from container into a steaming pot to prevent moisture from entering the container. Use a DRY spoon to measure spices and herbs from a container.

61 61 Secure whole spices, such as cloves, in a tea ball for easy removal at the end of cooking.

62 62 Warning: Remove bay leaves at the end of cooking. They can be a choking hazard if left in foods and can cause harmful cuts and scratches in your throat and esophagus.

63 63 For UNCOOKED foods, add both FRESH and DRIED spices and herbs several hours before serving to allow flavors to blend.

64 64 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

65 65 Use the following guidelines for storing your spices and herbs to maintain maximum quality.

66 66 To prevent flavor and color loss, AVOID: Moisture Light Heat Air

67 67 Store in tightly covered containers. Store in a dark place away from sunlight, such as inside a cupboard or drawer.

68 68 AVOID storage above dishwasher, microwave, stove, refrigerator or near a sink or heating vent. If storing in an open spice rack, store away from heat, light and moisture.

69 69 Refrigerator/freezer storage?  Refrigerate paprika, chili powder and red pepper for best color retention, especially in summer or hotter climates.  Spices and herbs can get wet if condensation forms when a container from a refrigerator or freezer is left open in a humid kitchen.

70 70 Contents 1. Fat, Sugar and Salt Reduction Tips 2. Flavor and Food Combinations 3. Common Substitutions 4. General Rules for Amounts 5. When to Add Spices and Herbs 6. Storing Spices and Herbs 7. How Long to Keep

71 71 Here are some guidelines to help you determine when it’s time to TOSS your spices and herbs.

72 72 As a general rule, keep:  1 year: Herbs or GROUND spices  2 years: WHOLE spices Buy a smaller container until you determine how fast you’ll use a particular spice or herb.

73 73 If a spice or herb smells strong and flavorful, it’s probably still potent.

74 74 Check a whole spice ― such as a clove or cinnamon stick ― by breaking, crushing or scraping it before smelling it. Check an herb or a ground spice by rubbing a small amount in your hand. If the aroma is fresh, rich and immediate, it can still flavor foods

75 75 AVOID smelling PEPPER or CHILI POWDER as they can irritate your nose.

76 76 “Pepper is small in quantity and great in virtue.” - Plato

77 77 Initial quality influences shelf life. Label date of purchase on container with a permanent marking pen.

78 78 In conclusion... “Spice a dish with love and it pleases every palate.” - Plautus

79 Know how. Know now. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.


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