Presentation on theme: "Natural Products in the Flavor Industry TIP Group D Jennifer Blaustein, Christine Fletcher, Annette Meyer, Tim Ward."— Presentation transcript:
Natural Products in the Flavor Industry TIP Group D Jennifer Blaustein, Christine Fletcher, Annette Meyer, Tim Ward
Essential Questions 1.How does the sense of taste function? 2.Why are flavorings used in the food industry? 3.What are the five main tools used in the flavor industry? 3.What are the roles of essential oils, oleoresins, natural aroma chemicals, diluents, and emulsifiers in the flavor industry? 4.How are artificial flavors produced?
Taste buds on the tongue are receptors that sense flavor A chemical activates the taste buds. There are five values that the tongue can taste: Bitter, Sour, Salty, Sweet, and Umami. Natural flavors normally have dozens of chemicals that interact to create a taste. Some fruit flavors have a dominant ester that provides the flavor. For example, octyl acetate has an orange flavor. http://www.cap.nsw. edu.au/bb_site_intro/ stage1_Modules/Sen ses/tastebud.gif http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/File:Taste_bud.sv g http://visual.merriam- webster.com/human-being/sense- organs/smell-taste/taste- receptors.php
Where do flavors come from? The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations defines the sources for natural flavors as: “Essential oils Oleoresin Essence or extractive Protein hydrolysate Distillate Products of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or any other edible portions of a plant, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose primary function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional.”
Functions of flavoring 1. Flavorings are used to compensate for losses due to processing of food. 2. Flavorings can be used to assist in compensating for defined reductions in fats or sugars. 3. Flavorings may be used to compensate for natural variations. 4. Flavorings are used to create recognition. 5. Flavorings as indispensable ingredients. 6. Flavorings for characterizing specific foods. 7. Flavorings provide novelty and innovation. 8. Flavorings may stimulate palatability.
Main Tools of the Flavor Industry Essential oils Oleoresins Natural aroma chemicals Diluents Emulsifiers
Six types of distillation of Essential Oils Expression – citrus oil from peel. Hydro or water distillation – simple, cheap, slow. Water and steam – higher oil yield. Steam – standard method in flavor industry. Solvent extraction – good for low yield botanicals (flowers). Carbon dioxide – newer, fast, expensive.
Essential Oils are extracted by water distillation http://www.fao.org/inpho/content/documents/v library/ad420e/AD420E15.htm
Steam and water distillation http://www.fao.org/inpho/content/documents/v library/ad420e/AD420E15.htm
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide becomes hypercritical at 33°C and has qualities of both a liquid and a gas. It is inert and does not react with the oil being extracted.
http://www.vasudev-ent.com/essential- aromatic-oils.html D-limonene, the main component of orange oil is produced in a gland inside of the rind of the fruit. D-limonene is extracted or steam distilled. http://www.valdezlink.com/ pages/media-s/d- limonene.gif http://www.vasudev-ent.com/essential- aromatic-oils.html http://www.food- info.net/images/eugenol.jpg Eugenol is an allylbenzene that is found in clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. Examples of essential oils
Oleoresins Concentrated extracts produced by removing the solvent from an extract using heat and vacuum. Oleoresins are dark and viscous. http://imghost.indiamart.com/data/K/Y/MY- 1182542/oleoresins- 20_10557398_250x250.jpg
The extraction of oleoresins Raw spices from plant materials are cleaned and ground up. Solvents, such as hexane, acetone, ethylene dichloride, or alcohol, are added to the ground plant materials. At room temperature, the solvent is “percolated” and collected. The extract is distilled. Solvent is recovered.
A Few Examples of oleoresin materials Black pepper oleoresin Capsicum oleoresin (from chili peppers) Cardamom oleoresin Cassia bark oleoresin Celery seed oleoresin Mace oleoresin Nutmeg oleoresin Parsley oleoresin Turmeric oleoresin Cinnamon oleoresin
Natural Aroma Chemicals large variety of acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, other organic compounds Cinnamaldehyde http://www.hellochem.com/xz/img/img0/986.gif Ethyl vanillin http://www.bmrb.wisc.edu/metabolo mics/standards/Ethyl_vanillin/lit/jr_1 67.png
Examples of Natural Aroma Chemicals ChemicalOdor DiacetylButtery Isoamyl acetateBanana BenzaldehydeBitter almond and cherry Cinnamic aldehydeCinnamon Ethyl propionateFruity Methyl anthranilateGrape
Diluents Used to solubilize and dilute the flavor Examples: –fractionated coconut oil –soybean oil –cottonseed oil –sunflower oil –canola oil
Emulsifiers Monoglycerides produced by reacting fatty acids and glycerol are the basis for making emulsifiers. Vegetable oils and animals fats are sources for emulsifiers. A commonly used emulsifier is lecithin from soybean oil or egg yolk. Without an emulsifier, some foods would be inedible.
Examples of emulsifiers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gum_arabic Gum arabic which comes from the Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. http://gas2.org/files/2008/02/mustardseed.jpg Mustard seed mucilage that surround the seed are used as emulsifiers. http://sci- toys.com/ingredients/beta_lecithin.gif Lecithin from egg yolk.
Examples of Emulsifiers (cont.) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/ 42/Polysorbate_80.png Polysorbate 80 (above) is an emulsifer that is often used in ice cream. This chemical is derived from polyethoxylated sorbitan and oleic acid. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Propylene_glycol_chemical_structure.pn g&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Propylene_gly col_chemical_structure.png&usg=__lw8uPqqG4neSrl- 3uW4T77oEu2I=&h=707&w=1166&sz=4&hl=en&start=1&um=1&it bs=1&tbnid=UrntegvuBC- xAM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpropylene%2 Bglycol%2Bimage%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls %3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE- SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7_____en%26tbs%3Disch:1 Propylene glycol (right) is used as a solvent in flavor solutions, humectant in prepared fruits and vegetables, and a stablizer in baked goods.
Producing artificial flavorings Flavor compounds include: –A flavor portion –A diluent portion The flavor portion functions are: –To simulate the flavor –Maintain the character of the flavor after processing –Enhance the flavor impression
Producing artificial flavorings (cont) The diluent portion functions are: To keep the flavor principles in solution. Provide a carrier for the color, if any. A strength regulator, the greater the amount of solvent the weaker the flavor. It gives the flavor a physical fixation. (That it remains after processing.). It inhibits chemical reactions from occurring. It can act as a preservative. (i.e. Ethyl Alcohol, Propylene glycol) It is the vehicle for the presentation of the flavor portion. It determines the form of the flavor. The way the flavor appears on the market, i.e., as a liquid, powder, or paste form. It makes the flavor applicable. The flavor materials do not make a flavor work,.... it is the form of the flavor that does. The solvent distributes the flavor uniformly throughout the product.
Why use artificial flavorings? It may be less expensive to synthesize the substance in a chemical plant than to extract the flavoring substance from its natural source. In other cases one or more chemicals not found in a particular food can imitate its flavor. For example, many fruits have sweet and tart (or sour) components in their flavor. It is possible to imitate a “fruity” flavor using sucrose (table sugar) as a sweet component and a weak acid as a sour component.
“Mocking” the flavor in apple pie Sugar and cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate, KHC4H4O6, a weak acid), mimic the sweetness and tartness of apple; cracker crumbs and water mimic the bulk and texture of cooked apple. Citric acid or lemon juice can be used in place of cream of tartar. Adding cinnamon, often served with cooked apples, can complete the impression of real apples. If people realize that the cracker mixture does not contain apples, it is often the appearance or texture that gives it away, not the taste.
A recipe for Mock Apple Pie Crumble one or two crackers into a small dish. Add 1 teaspoon (5 mL) sugar (or an equivalent quantity of artificial sweetener), 1/8 teaspoon (~1/2 mL) cream of tartar, and 2 teaspoons (10 mL) water. Stir. If necessary add more water until the consistency of the mixture is about the same as applesauce. Record the proportions used. Using a clean spoon, taste the cracker mixture. Does it have a fruity flavor similar to that of cooked apples? (Optional: Heat the cracker mixture for 10–20 seconds in a microwave oven and/or add a sprinkle of cinnamon. Taste again. Does it taste more like apples now?) Record your observations. Repeat steps 1 and 2, adjusting the quantities of sugar and cream of tartar, or substituting a pinch of citric acid or a few drops of lemon juice for the cream of tartar until you find the mixture that tastes most like apples.
In a clean dish, make a new batch of the cracker mixture using proportions you think taste the most like apples. Ask someone who does not know about this activity to taste your mixture and give you their opinion. Ask them to name the ingredients. Record the result. (Optional: Put your cracker mixture in a clean dish labeled “A” and a similar volume of applesauce in a second clean dish labeled “B”. Add a sprinkle of cinnamon to both and warm them for a few seconds in a microwave oven. Ask someone to taste both and tell you which they like better and why. After you get their opinion, explain that one sample was made with real apples and the other with “artificial apple flavor”. Ask them which sample they think is which and why. Record your results.) Compare results with your classmates. Did anyone think the cracker mixture contained apples? This activity was taken from the Journal of Chemical Education, Vol 80, No. 4, April 2003.
References Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavorings. Journal of Chemical Education Vol80, No.4, April 2003. Essential & Aromatic Oils and Fragances. Vasudev Enterprise. Accessed on April 20, 2010. http://www.vasudev- ent.com/essential-aromatic-oils.htmlhttp://www.vasudev- ent.com/essential-aromatic-oils.html Essential Oils and Herbal Knowledge. Oilganic, 2008. Accessed on April 30, 2010. http://www.oilganic.comhttp://www.oilganic.com Extracts. The Global Gourmet. Accessed on May 8, 2010. http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/cookbook/2009/food- science/extracts.htmlhttp://www.globalgourmet.com/food/cookbook/2009/food- science/extracts.html Harrison, Karl. What is Cloves? Cloves @ 3D Chem. Molecule of the month April, 2007. Accessed on April 30, 2010. http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=333&othername=Cloves http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=333&othername=Cloves How Do Artificial Flavors Work? How Stuff Works. Accessed on April 30, 2010. http://science.howstuffworks.com/question391.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/question391.htm How Emulsifiers Work. Food Additives. Accessed on May 8, 2010. http://www.understandingfoodadditives.org/pages/Ch2p2-2.htm http://www.understandingfoodadditives.org/pages/Ch2p2-2.htm Need and Technological Function of Flavorings in Food. IOFI. Accessed on May 8, 2010. http://www.iofi.org/Iofi/English/Home/Flavor-Safety/page.aspx/4 http://www.iofi.org/Iofi/English/Home/Flavor-Safety/page.aspx/4 Polysorbate 80. Wikipedia. Accessed on May 14, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysorbate_80http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysorbate_80 Priya, S. Shanmuga. Manufacturing of Oleoresin. Accessed on May 8, 2010. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21386206/Manufacturing-of-Oleoresin http://www.scribd.com/doc/21386206/Manufacturing-of-Oleoresin Propylene Glycol, The Dow Chemical Company. Accessed on May 14, 2010. http://www.dow.com/propyleneglycol/app/foodflav.htm http://www.dow.com/propyleneglycol/app/foodflav.htm The Science in Artificial Flavor Creation. The Flavorist Toolbox. FKS, Inc. 2002. Accessed on April 30, 2010. http://www.fks.com/flavors/tech/Science%20of%20Flavor%20Creation.asp http://www.fks.com/flavors/tech/Science%20of%20Flavor%20Creation.asp Wais Document Retrieval. Federal Code of Regulations. Accessed on May 8, 2010. http://frwebgate1.access.gpo.gov/cgi- bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=230673388281+1+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve