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© 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Unit 33: Flavor Development.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Unit 33: Flavor Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Unit 33: Flavor Development Flavor indicates the total experience of a dish

2 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

3 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Taste Pertains to way foods are experienced by our taste buds Five distinct tastes

4 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Sweet

5 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Sour

6 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Salty

7 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Bitter

8 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Umami

9 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Smell A food’s aroma or fragrance Perfume Fragrance Aroma Pungent Earthy

10 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Touch Firm, dense, hard Soft, yielding Dry Crisp, crunchy, crumbly Light Airy, frothy, foamy Thick Watery Warming, cooling

11 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Sound Snap Pop Crackle Sizzle Sound familiar to a popular marketing subject?

12 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Sight Opaque Translucent Transparent Colors

13 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Ingredient Selection As fresh as possible Best and most appropriate quality Fully flavored Attractive in shape and color Of the best possible texture

14 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Technique Review techniques learned in previous chapters Observe foods as they cook by using a specific technique Note the differences when same foods are prepared differently Note a specific technique’s ability to affect the way you experience a food’s flavor

15 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Color Changes Exteriors change, interior remains consistent Acids, alkalis, and heat affect color by brightening or dulling Foods become translucent or opaque For example, shellfish turns bright red from greenish

16 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Texture Proteins are a perfect example Custards, meats, gelatins Starches swell in the presence of heat and moisture Foods stiffen, get crusty Foods also soften or become mushy

17 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Flavor Changes Cooking either diminishes or intensifies Flavors can be concentrated or diluted Developing flavors calls for food to be added in stages or layers Each component must be perfectly cooked, seasoned, trimmed, etc. Adding foods in a sequence creates layers of flavors

18 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Seasoning Foods Salt enhances sweetness, reduces bitterness, softens sour flavors Herbs: fresh are more intense, contain volatile oils and should be added at the end of the process, stems can be used for infusion, cutting releases more flavor Spices are added early in the recipe, ground or heated to bring out more flavor Other aromatics and enhancers include bouquet garni, sachet, mirepoix, cajun trinity, battuto, good table wines, aromatic vegetables and fruits (lemon grass, kafir lime leaves)

19 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

20 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Flavor Profiles Geographically, regionally, ethnically, and culturally affected Provençal Greek Vietnamese Mexican Spanish

21 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Tasting Foods Temperature effects our ability to perceive tastes We must remember to taste and not eat Food tastes best to us between 72˚ and 105˚F (22˚ and 41˚C) Cold foods need more seasoning Sweet and sour sensations are more enhanced at the upper ends Salty and bitter, lower ends

22 © 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals. Educating Your Palate Many chefs and cooks follow a recipe to the letter, but never taste the food A chef or cook must constantly taste to develop a palate or educated taste index Raw fruits and vegetables can be tasted safely, but are very different when cooked Cook hazardous foods before tasting, as no one will eat them raw anyway Always taste foods at their appropriate serving temperature Use tasting spoons, and discard after each use Professionals never lick or suck their fingers


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