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© 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Flavors and Flavorings Chapter 7

2 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. After studying this unit  You will be able to: Understand the basic principles of the physiology of the sense of taste and smell Recognize a variety of herbs, spices, oils, vinegars, wines and other flavorings Understand how to use flavoring ingredients to create, enhance or alter the natural flavors of a dish

3 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Flavors  The combination of tastes, aromas and other sensations caused by the presence of a foreign substance in the mouth  Flavor is to food what hue is to color and what timbre is to music

4 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Tastes  The sensations we detect when a substance comes in contact with the taste buds on the tongue Sweet Sour Salt Bitter Umami

5 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. The Human Tongue

6 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. The Human Olfactory System

7 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Other Factors That Affect Flavor Perception  Temperature  Consistency  Presence of contrasting tastes  Presence of fats  Color

8 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Compromises to the Perception of Taste  Age  Health  Smoking

9 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Food Flavor Profiles  Top notes or high notes The sharpest first flavors or aromas  Middle notes The second wave of flavor, more subtle  Low notes The most dominant lingering flavor  Aftertaste or finish The final flavor  Roundness The unity of a dish’s various flavors  Depth of flavor A broad range of flavors

10 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Seasoning  An item added to enhance the natural flavors of a food without changing its taste  Salt is the most common seasoning

11 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Flavoring  An item that adds a new taste to food and alters its natural flavors  Flavorings include herbs, spices, vinegars and condiments

12 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Herbs and Spices  Herbs Any of a large group of aromatic plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a flavoring Used either dry or fresh  Spices Any of a large group of aromatic plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries are used as flavoring Usually used in dry form, whole or ground

13 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Condiment  Any item added to a dish for flavor, including herbs, spices and vinegars  Also refers to cooked or prepared flavorings such as prepared mustards, relishes, bottled sauces and pickles

14 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Seasoning and Flavoring Guidelines  Flavorings should not hide the taste or aroma of the primary ingredient  Flavorings should be combined in balance, so as not to overwhelm the palate  Flavorings should not be used to disguise poor quality or poorly prepared products  Flavorings should be added sparingly when foods are being cooked over a long period of time  Taste and season foods frequently during cooking

15 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Salt – The Most Common Seasoning  Culinary salt or table salt  Rock salt  Kosher salt  Sea salt  Sel gris  Fleur de sel  Specialty salts Smoked salt

16 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Oils  A type of fat that remains liquid at room temperature  Cooking oils are refined from various seeds, plants and vegetables

17 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Types of Oils  Vegetable oils Cottonseed, peanut, grape seed, sesame seed and soybean  Canola Rapeseeds  Nut oils Walnut, hazelnut and others  Olive oil Extra virgin, virgin and pure  Flavored oils Infused with basil, garlic, citrus and spices

18 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Condiments  Relishes  Pickles  Chutneys  Fish sauce  Ketchup  Prepared mustards Yellow, Dijon, whole grain  Soy sauce

19 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Wines  Vinification  Vintner  Tannins  Fermentation

20 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Wines of the United States  Most wines are named for the variety of grape that is used  The U.S. government requires that 75% of the wine comes from a particular grape

21 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Red Varietals  Cabernet Sauvignon  Merlot  Nebbiolo  Pinot Noir  Syrah  Sangiovese

22 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. White Varietals  Chardonnay  Riesling  Sauvignon Blanc

23 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Sparkling Wines  Methode Champenoise  Riddling  Disgorging  Charmat process  Dosage

24 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Fortified Wines  Port  Sherry  Madeira  Marsala  Vermouth

25 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Evaluating Wines  Aroma  Flavor  Body

26 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Matching Food with Wine  Colors  Tastes  Strengths  Opposites  Origins

27 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Selecting Wines to Use as Flavorings  Cooking wines Inferior product Have added salt  Do not cook with a wine that you would not drink

28 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Beer Made from:  Water  Hops  Barley Malt  Fermenting yeast

29 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Types of Beers  Ales Pale Brown  Lagers  Porters  Stout, Bock  American pilsner  European lager  Belgian Lambic

30 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Brandies  Grape brandy Cognac Armagnac Metaxa Brandy de Jerez  Pomace Brandy  Fruit Brandy Calvados Kirshwasser Framboise Poire Slivovitz

31 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Liquors  Gin  Rum  Tequila  Vodka  Whiskey Blended Bourbon Canadian Irish Rye Scotch

32 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Liqueurs  Made from herbs, fruits, nuts, spices, flowers or other flavors  In a base of neutral spirits, brandy, rum or whiskey  Cream liqueurs are made with cream  Crème liqueurs contain no cream, but contain additional sugar

33 © 2007 Pearson Education Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Labensky, et al. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4 th edition. Vinegars  Wine vinegars  Malt vinegars  Distilled vinegars  Cider vinegars  Rice vinegars  Flavored vinegars  Balsamic vinegars


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