Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Flavor Intensity – From Weak to Powerful! Flavor Persistency – More Bang for Your Buck!"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Flavor Intensity – From Weak to Powerful! Flavor Persistency – More Bang for Your Buck!
Chapter 10 Outline Aperitif: Release Weekend Wine and Food Menu – On the Twenty Restaurant Flavor Intensity in Wine and Food Identifying Flavor Types in Wine and Food Food Flavor Categories Wine Flavor Categories Assessing Flavor Intensity The Interaction of Wine and Food Flavor Intensity Assessing Flavor Persistency The Interaction of Wine and Food Flavor Persistency
Chapter 10 Key Concepts Retro-nasal flavors In-mouth flavor evaluation process Umami Flavor intensity levels Wine Length, Finish, and Aftertaste
Prominent Flavor Categories The major flavor categories are: fruity, nutty, smoky, herbal, spicy, cheesy, earthy, and meaty. The food and wine flavor categories used in the evaluation system include: dominant flavor(s), flavor intensity, flavor persistency, and spicy flavors.
Contextual Considerations Prior to and During Flavor Assessment The measuring instrument (the human element) is a sensitive device which is somewhat unreliable due to a variety of issues: –psychological factors, –physiological factors, –individual differences, –and other factors. Another complication is that food and beverage factors are unstable and can be impacted by changes in temperature and exposure to the external environment.
In-Mouth Smells or Retro-Nasal Process Determining flavor type and intensity is based on aroma perception and the connection between oral and nasal cavities once the food or wine is in the mouth. Perceiving flavor type and intensity requires concentration, focus and experience.
The Suggested Process For Assessing In-Mouth Flavors a.Take a small amount of the food or wine into the mouth and retain it in the back of the throat for several seconds or up to 1 minute. b.The chewing process (for both food and wine) can be helpful to open the nasal cavity and to release flavor compounds. c.Breathe normally during this time; d.Then exhale through the nose with your lips closed. e.Try to identify the specific flavors, the dominant one and its intensity. Repeat steps a through d if necessary.
What about the Umami taste-flavor? Umami is described ‘deliciousness’ derived from a variety of sources: soy products, mushrooms, MSG, meat glazes, and tomatoes. Not a main factor in wine and food matching. It makes most food more wine friendly – unless containing excessive salt or spice. Highly intense umami flavor will overshadow light whites, but lighter umami flavored dishes work well with all types of white wines.
Wines that are Likely to Have Particular Flavors Fruity: Whites: Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Grigio Reds: Barbera, Beaujolais, DolcettoNutty: Whites: Fino Sherry, Amontillado SherrySmoky: Whites: Aged Burgundy, Oaky Chardonnay Reds: Aged Barolo and BarbarescoHerbal: Whites: Fumé Blanc, Pouilly-Fumé, Sancere Reds: Bordeaux (young), Cabernet Franc (Ontario), Some Meritage reds
Wines that are Likely to Have Particular Flavors Continued Buttery: Whites: Many oaky New World Chardonnay Reds: Perceptible in some reds that have undergone malo-lactic fermentation Floral: Whites: Moscato d’Ast, Muscat, Some Gewürztraminer Earthy: Whites: French whites in general, aged Burgundy Reds: Aged Bordeaux, Aged Burgundy, Some Pinot Noir
The Impact of Flavor Type Matching on the Pairing Process Flavor type matching builds on the positive assessment of components or texture in the wine and food item. The end goal of flavor type matching is to create a synergistic match between a particular wine and food item. If the correct flavor type(s) in a wine and food item are paired together, then a synergistic match could be made. Therefore, it is quite important to carefully analyze and identify prominent flavor type(s) in both wine and food.
Flavor Intensity Levels in Food and Wine Non-detectable (no flavor): Rating intensity is Sensation is not detectable or if this sensation fades almost immediately. No perception or barely perceptible levels. Little perception (weak flavor): Rating intensity is 2-4. Sensation in which we succeed in identifying or perceiving it in a recognizable way, but, the stimulus is not well-defined. The level of perception is still low. Sufficiently perceived (moderately strong): Rating intensity is 4-6. Sensation in which we succeed in identifying and perceiving it at a sufficient level. Perception is at an intermediate level.
Flavor Intensity in Food and Wine Continued Abundantly Perceived (strong): Rating intensity is 6-8. Sensation in which we can clearly identify and perceive in a much defined way. The taste-smell sensation is at an emphasized level. Highly perceived (powerful): Rating intensity is Sensation that can be unmistakably identified with much emphasis. High perceptibility with a lot of emphasis.
The Relationship between Wine and Food Flavor Intensity A correct pairing of a wine and food dish, a pairing that compliments each other’s intensity. Should achieve its end goal by creating a synergistic match as opposed to a good or neutral one.
Persistency In Food Sensory analysts use the concept of the time-intensity curve to tie intensity and persistency together in food products. The typical time-intensity curve includes: –assessing maximum intensity, –time to maximum, –total duration, –maximum rates of onset and decay, –lag time, plateau time, and areas before and after maximum intensity. Persistency in food is part of an overall assessment of intensity, duration, and aftertaste. Persistency in food flavor is more closely related to the intensity of ingredients included in the finished dish.
What is Indicated by The Length of Persistency in Wine Flavor? Persistency in wine is an important indicator of quality. The finish should be sufficiently long with pleasant flavors lingering in your mouth/nasal cavity. A low quality wine may only have a finish of 3- 5 seconds. A high quality wine may have a finish of 15, 25 or more seconds.
The Relationship between Wine and Food Persistency If the wine and food selections enhance each other, then an appropriate lingering of these flavors should provide the taster with a longer period of sensory stimulation. A lengthy and enjoyable marriage provides a bigger bang for your buck and greater gastronomic satisfaction. In this instance, the food and wine will neither overpower nor under whelm each other.
Persistency Measurement in Wine/Food Take a good-sized sip of wine or small taste of food. If a liquid - roll the liquid around your gums, cheeks and the roof of your mouth for 2-3 seconds. If a solid – chew the food to release the flavors and to cover all of the mouth surfaces. Ensure complete contact with taste receptors. Then swallow (or spit) and don’t talk – talking closes the nasal cavity Keep your mouth closed and force the air out through your nose. Count the number of seconds that the wine or food flavors persistent. Finish in wine can last up to a minute in some cases.
Flavor Intensity Intensity varies substantially across wines even within the same varietals. The following charts provide some general ranges for typical white, red and specialty wines. Caution should be taken when trying to generalize from these approximations.
Relative Flavor Intensity Typical in White Wines* None Weak Moderate Intense Powerful Chardonnay Chenin Blanc Gewürztraminer Pinot Gris Riesling Sauvignon Blanc Sémillon Trebbiano *Adapted from Jackson, R.S. (2000) Wine Science. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, p Chablis Burgundy California Australia Loire New World Alsace Veneto Alsace Mosel New World Rheingau Loire Bordeaux New Zealand Bordeaux Australia Soave Orvieto
Relative Flavor Intensity Typical in Red Wines* None Weak Moderate Intense Powerful Barbera Cab. Sauvignon Corvina Gamay Noir Merlot Nebbiolo Pinot Noir Sangiovese Syrah/Shiraz Tempranillo Zinfandel *Adapted from Jackson, R.S. (2000) Wine Science. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, p Piedmont Bordeaux New World Valpolicella Amarone Beaujolais Bordeaux New World Barbaresco Barolo Burgundy Oregon Chianti Brunello Cote de Rhone Australia Rioja ‘Blush’ California Red
Relative Flavor Intensity Typical in Specialty Wines* None Weak Moderate Intense Powerful Sparkling Sherries Ports *Adapted from Jackson, R.S. (2000) Wine Science. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, p Vinho Verde Cava Champagne Vintage Champagne Manzanilla Fino Pale Cream Amontillado Dark Cream White Tawny Ruby Vintage
Additional Reading Jackson, R.S. (2000). Wine Science. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Charley, H. & Weaver, C. (1998). Foods: A Scientific Approach, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.