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Chapter 7 Sanitation Hazards. Importance of Safe Food Handling  Foodborne Illness 1. A sickness caused by eating unsafe food 2. An outbreak is when two.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Sanitation Hazards. Importance of Safe Food Handling  Foodborne Illness 1. A sickness caused by eating unsafe food 2. An outbreak is when two."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Sanitation Hazards

2 Importance of Safe Food Handling  Foodborne Illness 1. A sickness caused by eating unsafe food 2. An outbreak is when two or more people eat the same food and get the same sickness 3. Not only do outbreaks harm the customer, they can result in employees being fired or demoted, businesses getting sued, and reputations being ruined 4. The bad publicity caused by an outbreak can lead to the establishment going out of business

3 Contamination 1. The presence of unsafe substances or levels of dangerous microorganisms in food 2. Can result from biological, chemical, or physical hazards 3. Other hazards that cause allergic reactions for some individuals may either naturally occur in foods or be introduced

4 Sanitation  The creation and practice of clean and healthy food-handling habits

5 Biological Hazards  Biological hazards are harmful organisms that cause foodborne illness 1. This source of contamination is troublesome for foodservice 2. The illness that results can range from mild discomfort to life threatening 3. Most are too small to see with the naked eye 4. These pathogens include harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and fish toxins 5. A pathogen is an organism that causes illness in humans

6 Bacteria 1. Type of pathogen responsible for many foodborne illness outbreaks is bacteria 2. Single-celled organisms that reproduce by dividing

7 How Bacteria Grow 1. Need water, food, and favorable temperatures to thrive 2. PHF or potentially hazardous foods are any foods that require time and temperature control for safety to limit the growth of pathogens or the formation of their dangerous by-products 3. Controlling the time these foods are exposed to unsafe temperatures helps to limit bacterial growth

8 How Bacteria Grow, Continued 4. Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow 5. Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that thrive without oxygen 6. Facultative bacteria are bacteria that can grow either with or without oxygen 7. If conditions are ideal, they can divide every 20 minutes 8. Some bacteria have an added survival mechanism- a spore is a thick-walled “supersurvival unit”

9 Pathogenic bacteria cause foodborne illness in one of the following way  Infection  Results from live bacteria  Must be ingested to be a threat  Intoxication  Resulting from ingestion of toxins left behind by bacteria  May succeed at killing the bacteria without affecting the toxins  Toxin mediated infection  Bacteria are ingested and then produce harmful toxins while in the human digestive tract

10 Controlling Growth of Bacteria  Food source  High protein & other hazardous food must be handled carefully  Protein in particular is favored  pH  Bacteria remain active  Most function best in neutral pH  Acids can help preserve food

11 Controlling Growth of Bacteria, continued  Time  The amount of time in the danger zone must be limited  Shouldn’t be kept in danger zone for longer than 4 hours total  Temperature  Danger zone degrees  Above bacteria dies  Below bacteria reproduce at a slower rate

12 Controlling Growth of Bacteria, continued  Atmosphere  Removing oxygen from their atmosphere stops most growth  Water/Moisture  Removing water from food stops bacterial growth  Way to remember the 6 things needed for bacteria to grow is FAT TOM

13 Viruses  A very small organism that invades another cell and causes it to reproduce the virus 1. Without a cell host, viruses can survive but can’t reproduce 2. Two viruses that concern foodservice are hepatitis A and Norwalk virus 3. Hepatitis A causes liver damage

14 Norwalk caused 5,461,731 illnesses in 2011  Individuals become sick when they consume contaminated water or foods  The foods most often causing the outbreaks are raw or undercooked shellfish and raw salad ingredients  These viruses can be destroyed by heat

15 Viral contamination can be avoided by  Practicing excellent personal hygiene  Washing raw vegetables before preparation and eating  Avoiding shellfish harvested from polluted waters  Purchasing food only from the most reputable suppliers

16 Fungi  Yeast  A microscopic fungus that consumes sugar and expels alcohol and carbon dioxide gas  A yeast contamination is characterized by slime, discoloration, bubbles, and an alcoholic or “off” smell  Yeast is easily killed when heated above 136

17 Mold  Name for a large family of single-cell fungi  Most molds are not poisonous but can make food unappealing  Temperatures above 140 kills molds but their toxins may not be affected

18 Parasites  An organism that lives in and feeds on the body of another live creature  Parasites can be found in meat and fish  When humans eat food infested with live parasites, the parasites may be transmitted to the human host

19 Trichinella spiralis  Illness marked by fatigue, extreme digestive discomfort, and in rare instances, death  Illness a result of eating undercooked pork, now it is more often improperly cooked game meat  To prevent cook pork to 145, game should be cook to 160

20 Fish also harbor parasites  Such as anisakis  May be present in some raw fish  The only way to kill these parasites is cooking fish to an internal temperature of 140  Or freezing for 15 hours or seven days

21 Fish Toxins  Are poisons within the fish’s flesh  Ciguatera  Results when small fish eat a certain algae, large fish eat them, and humans eat large fish  Fish commonly associated red snapper, grouper, and barracuda  Scombroid  Occurs when fish are left in danger zone for too long  Fish commonly associated yellowfin tuna, skipjack, bonito, and mackerel  Unfortunately, there is no easy way to detect if a fish is contaminated  The best line of defense is to buy fish from reputable sources

22 Chemical Hazards  Any chemical that contaminates food  Metals  Copper from cookware can leach into food  To avoid this pans are lined with another metal that doesn’t react with food  Tin can be damaged or wear off  Galvanized steel should never be used because it contains zinc and zinc can leach into foods  Fish from polluted waters can contain heavy metals such as mercury  The only was to avoid the danger is to purchase fish from reputable sources

23 Agricultural Chemicals  Insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides may be found on the exterior of fruits and vegetables  The best prevention is washing and peeling produce

24 Kitchen Chemicals  Chemicals such as cleaning supplies, bleach, grease cutters, and polishes  Most chemical contamination results from employee carelessness or improper working habits

25 To prevent chemical contaminations do:  Store chemicals in clearly marked containers  Don’t store food in containers that previously held chemicals  Only use chemicals according to manufacture’s instructions  Store chemical in an area separate from food preparation or storage  Never randomly mix chemicals  Dispose of chemicals in accordance with manufacturer’s directions  If uncertain about how to use a chemical product, ask supervisor  If ingested, call poison control, refer to MSDS, and notify a supervisor

26 Physical Hazards  Solid materials that pose a danger to the consumer when present in food  Physical contamination is the result of carelessness

27 Common Physical Hazards  Glass  Not easily seen  Staples  Be careful when removing food from boxes & when breaking boxes down  Metal Shards  Commercial can openers can tear pieces of metal  Toothpicks  Often used for hors d’oeuvres or sandwiches; make sure easily seen

28 Food Allergens  A misinterpreted protein, the body’s immune system reacts against the allergen  When a customer alerts a restaurant server to an allergy, the kitchen staff must analyze everything that is served to the customer  When an allergen is transferred form its food of origin to a food that does not contain the allergen, it is called cross-contact


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