4Global Standards19901996200120032012The revised FATF Recommendations issued on the 16th February 2012 include a number of significant and important changes that have strengthened the standards in a number of key areas.
5Global Standards“Although the financial services industry is increasingly moving towards a globally standardised approach, there is still notable inconsistency with regard to implementation of AML controls at regional and local levels. This is not too dissimilar from the fragmented approach regulators continue to display in their global efforts to manage financial crime.Despite some positive steps and evident strides in coming to grips with the 21st century challenges posed by money laundering threats, regulators and the financial services industry continue to lag behind today’s globally connected money launderers.Inconsistent regulations have left gaps in which money launderers thrive, and as such, it will become essential that regulators implement a consistent regulatory approach, but also foster a closer working relationship with industry professionals in order to leverage each other’s resources, align mutual interests, and effectively tackle financial crime”.KPMG Global Anti-Money Laundering Survey 2014
6Regional MeasuresThe 3rd Anti-Money Laundering Directive has been adopted by all 28 EU Members States, as well as a number of other European countries.There are a total of 18 EU Member States that have, to date, adopted the €uro. Most others are obliged to do so.The use of the currency extends beyond the Eurozone, either through monetary agreements or through unilateral adoption of the €uro.
8Regional MeasuresThe 3rd Anti-Money Laundering Directive (Directive 2005/60) is part of a broader set of legislative measures aimed at the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing. These include:Directive 2006/70;Regulation 1781/2006;Regulation 1889/2005;EU Council Decision 2000/642; andA number of EU legal instruments imposing sanctions and restrictive measures on governments of third countries, or non-state entities and individuals.
9National Measures Prevention of Money Laundering Act Criminal Code (Articles 328A to 328M)Prevention of Money Laundering & Funding of Terrorism RegulationsImplementing ProceduresGuidance Notes
10Obliged Entities Customer Due Diligence Risk Assessment & Risk ManagementRecord Keeping ProceduresReporting Procedures & ObligationsAwareness, Training & Vetting of EmployeesInternal Controls
12Applicant for Business A legal or natural personWhether acting as principal or agentWho seeks to form a business relationship, or carry out an occasional transactionWith a person who is acting in the course of either relevant financial business or relevant activity.
13Beneficial Owner (BO) General Definition: A natural person who ultimately owns or controls the customer.A natural person on whose behalf or for the benefit of whom a transaction is being conducted.Specific Instances:Body corporate or body of persons.Legal entity or legal arrangement which administers and distributes funds.Long term insurance business.
14Beneficial Owner (BO) Body corporate or body of persons A natural person who owns or controls, whether directly or indirectly, more than 25% of the shares or voting rights (including through bearer shares).A natural person who otherwise exercises control over the management.Body corporate or body of personsA natural person who is the beneficiary of at least 25% of the property.In the case of non-determined beneficiaries, the class of persons.A natural person who controls at least 25% of the property.Legal entity or legal arrangementThe beneficiary under the policy.Long term insurance business
15Applicant for business Identification & VerificationIdentifyOfficial full name Date & place of birth Permanent residential address Identity reference numberNationalityVerifyGovernment-issued document with photographic evidence to verify identityDocument to verify addressApplicant for businessBeneficial owners
16PrincipalIdentification and verification procedures depend on whether:Obliged entities must ensure that the applicant is duly authorised in writingto act on behalf of the principal.Applicant is actingon behalf of anatural personApplicant is actingon behalf of acompany or partnershipApplicant is actingon behalf of afoundation or associationApplicant is atrusteeof a trust
17CFT ObligationObliged entities should have a system in place which detects whether an applicant for business is subject to any financial sanctions:UN Security Council Resolution 1267/1999UN Security Council Resolution 1373/2001Related EU RegulationsObliged entities need to remain updated with all sanctions that might have an impact on their business operations:Independent research‘International Sanctions’ section on the MFSA website (= prudential regulator)Commercial databases, etc.
18Purpose & Intended Nature Establish Business & Risk ProfileBusiness/ occupation/ employmentSource(s) of wealthExpected source & origin of fundsAnticipated level of activityAnticipated nature of activity
19Ongoing Monitoring Scrutiny of transactions: On the basis of the business and risk profile of the customer.In response to activities of a similar peer group.In response to specific types of transactions.Complex or large transactions.Transactions from a non-reputable jurisdiction.Updating CDD documentation:Updating expired documentation.Collecting new documentation as necessary.
20Source of Wealth & Funds At the beginning of the business relationshipAs part of the ongoing monitoring processSource of WealthSource of FundsThe economic activity generating the total net worth of the customerThe activity, event, business, occupation or employment from which funds used in a transaction originate
21Customer Due Diligence Application of CDDSDDEDDCustomer Due Diligence
22Enhanced Due Diligence General CircumstancesCustomer RiskProduct/ Service RiskInterface RiskGeographic RiskSpecific CircumstancesNon Face-to-FaceCorrespondent BankingPolitically Exposed PersonsNew/ Developing TechnologiesCustomer Due Diligence
23Simplified Due Diligence ApplicantsRelevant financial businessListed entitiesBOs of pooled accountsPublic authorities/ bodiesCertain low-risk entitiesProductsCertain insurance policiesCertain pensions or similar schemesElectronic moneyCertain low-risk productsCustomer Due DiligenceSpecific criteria/ limits apply in most instances
24Implementation of 3rd AML Directive There are significant differences in the way the 3rd Anti-Money Laundering Directive has been implemented within the Eurozone and the EU as a whole. Differences relating to CDD (including BOs) include:Calculation of the 25% threshold for corporates;Categories of persons considered to otherwise exercise control over corporate entities;Calculation of the 25% threshold for legal entities;Control and ownership structure;Verification of identity;High-risk indicators and enhanced due diligence;Requirement to keep BO information up-to-date; andUse of BO information obtained for CDD purposes.
25Towards the 4th AML Directive ScopeAlign EU legislation with the revised FATF Recommendations.Address issues that have arisen within a European context.TimelineOfficial proposal published by the Commission – 5th February 2013.1st compromise text issued by the Presidency – 30th August 2013.2nd compromise text issued by the Presidency – 22nd November 2013.3rd compromise text issued by the Presidency – 28th January 2014.3rd compromise text (revised) issued by the Presidency – 21st February 2014.European Parliament amendments – 11th March 2014.4th compromise text issued by the Presidency – 8th May 2014.4th compromise text (revised) issued by the Presidency – 22nd May 2014.5th compromise text issued by the Presidency – 10th June 2014.
26Beneficial OwnerIn the case of corporate entities the definition is clarified, and further guidance on how to identify beneficial ownership is outlined in the text.In case of trusts and similar arrangements the settlor, trustee, protector, beneficiaries or class of beneficiaries (or similar positions) or any other person exercising control shall be regarded as a beneficial owner.
27Beneficial Owner Company A Company B 10% Person 2 100% Company C 60% Legal personsNatural persons not required to be identified as a beneficial ownerNatural persons required to be identified as a beneficial owner
28Beneficial Owner Company V Company W 18% Company Y 100% Person 4 100% Company X 52%Person 2 20%Person 3 50%Company Z 30%Person 1 30%Legal personsNatural persons not required to be identified as a beneficial ownerNatural persons required to be identified as a beneficial owner
29Beneficial Owner Company A Person 1 Shares 20% Voting 10% Legal personsNatural persons not required to be identified as a beneficial ownerNatural persons required to be identified as a beneficial ownerNatural persons required to be identified as a beneficial owner
30Beneficial Ownership Information 5th Presidency Compromise Text (Articles 29 – 30)What information should be retained?Corporate entities – essential information, including beneficial ownership information.Trusts or similar arrangements – identity of settlor, trustee, protector, beneficiaries or class of beneficiaries (or similar positions) and any other person exercising effective control.How should information be made available?To obliged entities – on request when these would be conducting CDD.To competent authorities and FIUs – information should be stored in a specified location through central registries or by virtue of data retrieval systems. (Obliged entities may be granted access as well).
31Beneficial Ownership Information European Parliament Amendments (Articles 29 – 30)What information should be retained?Corporate entities – essential information, including beneficial ownership information.Trusts or similar arrangements – identity of settlor, trustee, protector, beneficiaries or class of beneficiaries (or similar positions) and any other person exercising effective control.How should information be made available?Through public registers, commercial or company registers.Accessible by competent authorities, FIUs, obliged entities and the public at large (subject to identification).
32Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) Members of governing bodies of political parties will also be regarded as PEPs.EDD will not be limited to PEPs residing in other Member States or foreign jurisdictions, but will also be applicable to domestic PEPs.
33Customer Due Diligence Simplified Due DiligenceNo longer considered to mean “no CDD”.Entirely risk-based.Enhanced Due DiligenceStill mandatory in specific circumstances.Inclusion of further specific circumstances where the application of EDD is mandatory (for example, domestic PEPs and certain complex transactions).Reliance on third partiesNo longer strictly rules-based.Introduction of group-wide reliance.
34Risk-Based ApproachMay determine the extent of customer due diligence (CDD) measures on a risk-sensitive basis depending on the type of customer, business relationship, product or transaction.Shall have policies, controls and procedures to mitigate and manage effectively the money laundering and terrorist financing risks identified at Union level, Member State level, and at the level of obliged entities.CurrentProposed