5What’s the Point?Authors intentionally (on purpose) put words’ meanings IN the context of their writingThere are four common ways that they do this!S = synonymsA = antonymsG = general contextE = examples
6Sooo……When reading and you come across a word whose meaning you do not know, you could….Use a dictionaryAsk a friendAsk a teacherAsk your petUse context (also known as – the SAGE approach!)
7S = SynonymsA synonym is a word that has the same or similar meaning as another.RootsSyn = sameNym – namePairs of synonyms, for example:Happy = gladSad = depressedCat = felineHorse = equineWatery = aqueous
8Synonym Cue Words Or That is If you see these words (or others like them), you should expect that a synonym will follow!So….if you don’t know the first word’s meaning, you may know the second’s!!!
9Synonym ExamplesThe dentist gave me laughing gas to alleviate (or ease) the pain of cutting out my wisdom teeth.Cue word?Meaning of alleviate?Being nocturnal, that is, active at night, owls are rarely seen during the day.What does nocturnal mean?
10Whole Group PracticeThe government should not infringe on or violate a person’s right to free speech.What does this sentence mean?Tom was so engrossed, that is, involved, in the football game on television that he did not hear his wife’s question.What doe this sentence mean?Endangered species such as manatees need a sanctuary, or haven, so they can begin to thrive, that is, repopulate, again.What is a sanctuary?What does it mean to thrive (in the animal kingdom)?
11Assignment!Flip through your history text book and find 10 sentences that utilize synonym context clues to struggling readers.For each sentence, write down the difficult vocabulary word’s meaning (aside from just the synonym.)For example:The lawyer sought to adjudicate, or bring the case to trial, in order to help his client.You would write the complete sentence down and…Write down that adjudicate means to have his “case heard before a judge and jury”.Do NOT just write down that adjudicate means “to bring the case to trial”!
12A = AntonymsAntonyms are words that have the opposite meaning of each other.RootsAnt = oppositeNym = namePairs of antonyms, for example:Happy = sadPrompt = lateStudious = unfocusedCalm = hyperactiveIngenious = commonplace
13Antonym Cue Words But However In contrast Instead Not On the other handUnlikeYetSometimes antonyms are right next to the new word(set off by commas, dashes, or parentheses)Sometimes antonyms are placed in other parts of the sentence to stress the contrast
14Antonym ExamplesDuring dinner, Anne Marie let out a long, loud burp that mortified her mother but amused her friends.What did her friends think of the burp? Her mother?Therefore, what does mortified mean?Suzanne’s tone was surprisingly flippant, in contrast to her usual respectful manner.How is she usually?How was her tone this time?
15Antonym Practice (small group) Use the Antonym part of the SAGE approach to determine a meaning of the bold words.Johnson’s Reconstruction plan was to treat the South with malice, not love.Lincoln’s plan perturbed many people. However, some people thought it was a good one.Lincoln’s assassination left many people incredulous. On the other hand, many people thought violence would come to Lincoln.
16G = General ContextOften you will find that the author has not provided a synonym or antonym clue to a word’s meaning.You may need to read the entire sentence or to read ahead for a few sentences.Sometimes a definition may be provided.Vivid word pictures or descriptions may be providedLogic and reasoning may be needed!
17General Context Cue Words For instanceFor exampleSuch asIncludingConsists of
18ExamplesTo ensure safety, written and road tests should be mandatory for everyone who seeks a driver’s license for the first time; no exceptions should be allowed.What part of this sentence gives you a clue of mandatory’s meaning?What does mandatory mean?
19ExamplesInstead of being placed in adult prisons, where they often became more antisocial by mixing with hardened criminals, youth who have been convicted of crimes should be placed in programs that rehabilitate them.A. Restore to useful lifeB. Punish for good reasonC. Exhaust in order to break the spiritD. Entertain
20More examplesJaime speculated about how much weight he wanted to gain during the three month bodybuilding program he was beginning.A. KnewB. WonderedC. WorriedD. CelebratedLosing weight too quickly – more than a pound or two a week – can be detrimental to long-term weight control and good health.A. HelpfulB. OddC. HarmfulD. Pleasing
21One More! From ”Popular” And though you protest Your disinterest I know clandestinely You're gonna’ grin and bear it Your new found popularityHOW will you find out what this word means?What DOES clandestinely actually mean?
22E = ExamplesMany times an author will show the meaning of a new or difficult word by providing an example.Example signal wordsFor instanceFor exampleSuch asIncludingConsists of
23Examples….examples!The American presidency has suffered infamous events such as the Watergate scandal of Richard Nixon and the impeachment of Bill Clinton.What are the examples in this sentence?Do you know what these events were – in history?If you DO, you might have a better idea of infamous’s definition.If you DON’T, you may need to find another route.
24More ExamplesSome authors use pseudonyms; for example, famous American author Mark Twain’s real name was Samuel Clemens.A. TypistsB. Mental tricksC. Ghost writersD. False nameSome people believe that the pesticides used on food cause serious physical impairments such as weakened kidneys and a more fragile immune system.A. ImprovementsB. LawsC. InjuriesD. Pairings
25Final Example…Example Some students find collaborative leaning helps them understand and retain information; for example, Nicole, Vejay, and Chad meet every Tuesday and Thursday in the library to compare notes and help each other prepare for tests.A. AdditionalB. IntenseC. IndependentD. Shared