1940 A firm handshake in the morning... J.B. Watson – “the father of American psychological thought” 1945 Rene Spitz, M.D.
Hospital Treatment of Infants by Spitz and Staff -- 1945 Infants die at a 20% rate during the first 6 months Infants die at a 40% rate during the first year Beyond the first year, infants survive
The Spitz Longitudinal Study 1945 Development Development Physical CognitiveSocial Time of Adoption Pre 1Slow Slow Slow 5-6Normal Normal Normal
Physical CognitiveSocial Physical CognitiveSocial Time of Adoption 1 - 2Slow Slow Slow 5 - 6Normal Normal Slow
Physical CognitiveSocial Physical CognitiveSocial Time of Adoption 2 - 3Retarded Retarded Retarded 5 - 6Slow Slow Retarded
1950 Harry Harlow Round 1 -- Preference for a “Wire” or “Cloth” Mother Round 2 – Addition of the “Monsters” Round 3 – Social Isolation What did Harlow discover?
1951 John Bowlby At an address to the American Psychology Association Bowlby reported : “Mothers enjoy mothering...” “Infants enjoy being mothered...” Enjoyment – Satisfaction Bowlby lost credibility with his peers
Mary Ainsworth 1960 Attachment – “The most significant social event of your life.” With attachment come separation and stranger anxiety. Occurs at about 6 months
T.G.R. Bower 1980 Mary, why is it that abused infants form the same secure attachments to parents even though the relationship is not loving? What do you think Mary Ainsworth’s response was? What was Bower’s contribution to the Zeitgeist?
Its not “love” at all that infants need to survive and thrive. Its communicational rapport! Consistent communication leads to attachment and allows infants to thrive. Successful human relationships are based on what?
What does it all mean? What do infants need to survive and thrive? 1. Food 2. Water 3. Sleep 4. Safety 5. Communicational Rapport
Why Understanding Theory is Critical to Professional Educators How did theory enhance the likelihood that “communicational rapport” would ultimately be added to the modern zeitgeist of child rearing? How did theory enhance the likelihood that “communicational rapport” would ultimately be added to the modern zeitgeist of child rearing?Theories 1. Tell us how to organize and interpret facts 2. Represent public knowledge 3. Are testable 4. Are less complex than people 5. Are generalizable