Presentation on theme: "Life on Earth What is it? Is it on other planets?."— Presentation transcript:
Life on Earth What is it? Is it on other planets?
Definition of Life? Something that maintains homeostasis, grows, and reproduces –Fire? –Crystals? Something that grows and adapts –Computer program? Something that has a metabolic process Something that has a genetic code Dependence on water?
“Definitions are concerned only with language and concepts; they can't expand our understanding of the world. We can only define things we already understand.” -Carol Cleland
Requirements for Life? Sun Appropriate temperature Neutral pH levels One atmospheric pressure Water However is this just for humans??? –W–What about on foreign lands?
Erwin Shrodinger Physicist 1944 defined life as something that, “…avoids the decay into equilibrium.” Second Law of Thermodynamics=entropy always increases When you die, your body reaches entropy Living things avoid entropy by taking in nutrients
Benton Clark Astrophysicist at the University of Colorado Also works for Lockheed Martin Life exhibits 102 qualities Three main qualities –Life reproduces, uses energy, and these functions follow instructions in the organism –RNA & DNA
Benton Clark cont. Crystals are not alive because they haven’t evolved Not all living organisms reproduce –Mules & honeybees –People Dependence on water?
Does All Life Need Water? Life on Earth evolved with water, therefore it is dependent on it On Earth, life has been able to adapt to harsh environments Sulfuric acid as a solvent on Venus Methane-ammonia mixtures on Jupiter Extromophiles
What are Extremophiles? Microbes living where nothing else can How do they survive? –Extremozymes Why are they are interesting? Extremes fascinate us –Life on other planets Practical applications are interesting –Medicine –Food preservation –Sterilization
Extremophile History Definition - Lover of extremes History –Suspected about 30 years ago –Known and studied for about 20 years Temperature extremes –boiling or freezing, 100 0 C to -1 0 C (212F to 30F) Chemical extremes –vinegar or ammonia ( 9 pH) –highly salty, up to ten times sea water
Types of Extremophiles Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles Psychrophiles Acidophiles Alkaliphiles Barophiles Endoliths Halophiles
Research Project Choose a specific extremophile with two other partners. Research the specific conditions where they live –What makes them so extreme? –How do they survive their extreme environment? –Give examples of ones we have found as well as their specific location Create a PowerPoint to share your research with the class! –Make sure to include pictures in your presentation!
Thermophiles & Hyperthermophiles Extreme Temperatures Thermophiles 40 - 70 ℃ (104 - 158℉) – Densely packed proteins prohibit internal water Hyperthermophiles 60 - 113 ℃ (140 - 235℉) – Found in hot acidic spring in Yellowstone – Also found near “black smokers” – Stops growing below 200℉
Archaea Strain 121 Location: Yellowstone National Park
Psychrophiles Organisms that grow best in low temperatures -10 - 20 ℃ (14 - 68℉) Thrive in Arctic and Antarctic Oceans Lower than -18℃ (0 ℉)is lethal, except for Panagrolaimus davidi Natural antifreeze
Acidophiles Life in sulfuric ponds pH levels from 1 to 5 Ability to pump out hydrogen atoms keeps internal pH at 6.5 Cyanidium caldarium, a red algae; and Dunaliella acidophila, a green algae, can survive below pH 1 Ferroplasma acidarmanus, a fungi, lives at pH 0 in Iron Mountain, California
Cyanidium A red algae Location: Yellowstone National Park
Deinococcus radiodurans Most durable organism known to man Can withstand radiation of 1.5 million rads
Alkaliphiles Live in soda lakes (Kenya) and carbonate- rich soils pH levels from 9-11 Maintain internal pH of 8 from pumping hydrogen ions across cell membranes into the cytoplasm
Barophiles Thrive deep in the ocean or far underground Most live at pressures of 400-700 atmospheres, but die at 1 atmosphere
Bacillus Infernus Location: Gold Mine in Africa
Endoliths Organisms that live inside of rock or the pores in the rock Others feed on organic compounds from the autrotrophs Black smokers Thrive above 110 ℃ 4 - 7 km below the surface May exist on Mars
Acropora Cytherea Discovered under Johnston Atoll
Halophiles Thrive in high saline environments 10 x more saline than sea water (30% salt content) Accumulate potassium and glycine- betaine to offset high salinity May survive for millions of years in fluid inclusions of salt deposits –Have been found on Mars Europa and Callisto may have underground saline oceans
Dunaliella salina Found in California’s pink salt lakes
Life Comic Book Get out your ET Table. Use your table to figure out where certain extremophiles could live. Choose an extremophile and a planet/moon and create a comic about the discovery of life!!