Presentation on theme: "What is it? Is it on other planets?"— Presentation transcript:
1What is it? Is it on other planets? Life on EarthWhat is it? Is it on other planets?
2Definition of Life?Something that maintains homeostasis, grows, and reproducesFire?Crystals?Something that grows and adaptsComputer program?Something that has a metabolic processSomething that has a genetic codeDependence on water?
3“Definitions are concerned only with language and concepts; they can't expand our understanding of the world. We can only define things we already understand.”-Carol Cleland
4Requirements for Life? Sun Appropriate temperature Neutral pH levels One atmospheric pressureWaterHowever is this just for humans???What about on foreign lands?
5Erwin Shrodinger Physicist 1944 defined life as something that, “…avoids the decay into equilibrium.”Second Law of Thermodynamics=entropy always increasesWhen you die, your body reaches entropyLiving things avoid entropy by taking in nutrients
6Benton Clark Astrophysicist at the University of Colorado Also works for Lockheed MartinLife exhibits 102 qualitiesThree main qualitiesLife reproduces, uses energy, and these functions follow instructions in the organismRNA & DNABenton Clark is an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado and Lockheed MartinDr. Benton C. Clark III, MER science team member and Chief Scientist of Space Exploration, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Astronautics Operations, Denver
7Benton Clark cont. Crystals are not alive because they haven’t evolved Not all living organisms reproduceMules & honeybeesPeopleDependence on water?
8Does All Life Need Water? Life on Earth evolved with water, therefore it is dependent on itOn Earth, life has been able to adapt to harsh environmentsSulfuric acid as a solvent on VenusMethane-ammonia mixtures on JupiterExtromophilesAcidophiles living in the clouds of Venus?
10What are Extremophiles? Microbes living where nothing else canHow do they survive?ExtremozymesWhy are they are interesting?Extremes fascinate usLife on other planetsPractical applications are interestingMedicineFood preservationSterilization
11Extremophile History Definition - Lover of extremes History Suspected about 30 years agoKnown and studied for about 20 yearsTemperature extremesboiling or freezing, 1000C to -10C (212F to30F)Chemical extremesvinegar or ammonia (<5 pH or >9 pH)highly salty, up to ten times sea water
12Types of Extremophiles Thermophiles and HyperthermophilesPsychrophilesAcidophilesAlkaliphilesBarophilesEndolithsHalophilesMostly autotrophs
13Research ProjectChoose a specific extremophile with two other partners.Research the specific conditions where they liveWhat makes them so extreme?How do they survive their extreme environment?Give examples of ones we have found as well as their specific locationCreate a PowerPoint to share your research with the class!Make sure to include pictures in your presentation!
14Thermophiles & Hyperthermophiles Extreme Temperatures Densely packed proteins prohibit internal waterHyperthermophiles ℃ ( ℉)Found in hot acidic spring in YellowstoneAlso found near “black smokers”Stops growing below 200℉
15Archaea Strain 121Location: Yellowstone National Park
19Acidophiles Life in sulfuric ponds pH levels from 1 to 5 Ability to pump out hydrogen atoms keeps internal pH at 6.5Cyanidium caldarium, a red algae; and Dunaliella acidophila, a green algae, can survive below pH 1Ferroplasma acidarmanus, a fungi, lives at pH 0 in Iron Mountain, California
20CyanidiumA red algaeLocation: Yellowstone National Park
21Deinococcus radiodurans Most durable organism known to manCan withstand radiation of 1.5 million radsIn guiness book of world records
22Alkaliphiles Live in soda lakes (Kenya) and carbonate-rich soils pH levels from 9-11Maintain internal pH of 8 from pumping hydrogen ions across cell membranes into the cytoplasm
23Barophiles Thrive deep in the ocean or far underground Most live at pressures of atmospheres, but die at 1 atmosphere
25Endoliths Organisms that live inside of rock or the pores in the rock Others feed on organic compounds from the autrotrophsBlack smokersThrive above 110℃4 - 7 km below the surfaceMay exist on Mars
26Acropora CythereaDiscovered under Johnston Atoll
27HalophilesThrive in high saline environments 10 x more saline than sea water (30% salt content)Accumulate potassium and glycine-betaine to offset high salinityMay survive for millions of years in fluid inclusions of salt depositsHave been found on MarsEuropa and Callisto may have underground saline oceans
28Dunaliella salinaFound in California’s pink salt lakes
29Life Comic Book Get out your ET Table. Use your table to figure out where certain extremophiles could live.Choose an extremophile and a planet/moon and create a comic about the discovery of life!!