3Climate Zones of Africa Tropical rainforestsSavanna – grassy plainsSahara desertMediterranean coast
4Climate Zones of Africa Tropical rainforests – cover less than 5% of AfricaSavanna – largest and most populated zone
5Climate Zones of Africa Sahara – the world’s largest desertDesertification Migration
6Climate Zones of Africa Mediterranean coast – the tip of the Northern and Southern coasts of AfricaUnlike the desert, the Mediterranean climate is ideal for farming.
7Bantu MigrationsWest African farmers and herders moved to the south and east between 500 and 1500 AD.Migrations contributed to the rich diversity of people and culturesThey spoke a variety of languages that all came from the African root language, Bantu.
9Nile Kingdom of NubiaThe ancient kingdom Nubia was formed on a wide band of fertile land along the Nile. Nubian rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions. They built palaces and pyramids modeled on Egyptian styles.
10Roman Influence on North Africa The Romans built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across North Africa.They imported lions and other fierce animals to do battle with the gladiators.
12The Gold-Salt TradeThe camel changed the Saharan trade. For centuries trade was limited because the horses that transported the salt were not suitable to desert travel. However, about 300, the Berbers, an Arabic people of North Africa began using camels to carry their goods. When the caravans reached Ghana, merchants would pay one pound of gold dust for one pound of salt. Trade began to thrive.Now, more than 1,000 years later, salt trade still exists. As late as 1975, workers in Taghaza were living in salt huts and mining several thousand tons of salt per year. Small caravans of camels carrying salt still arrive in Timbuktu today.
13Kingdoms Of West Africa Ghana, Mali and Songhai were among the richest of the West African states. They dominated the Sahara trade.Two products that dominated the Sahara trade were gold and salt. These commodities, or valuable products, were plentiful.Sahara Trade Routes
14Ghana – “Land of Gold”In 800, the rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create Ghana. The capitol of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh which was comprised of two separate towns.The king controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa. Two streams of trade met in Ghana, where kings collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land.Muslim merchants brought their Islamic faith to Ghana. They also introduced their written language coinage, business methods, and architecture.
16Mali – Islamic Empire In 1235, Sundiata founded the kingdom of Mali. The greatest emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, expanded Mali’s borders and worked to keep peace. (mansa = king)Mansa Musa converted to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran. He actually fulfilled one of the five pillars of Islam by making the hajj.He formed diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim states, increasing Mali’s renown.
18SonghaiBy 1450, Gao, a wealthy trading state became the capital of Songhai.Sonni Ali, made it the largest state to have ever existed in West Africa. He did not adopt the practices of Islam. Instead, he followed more traditional religious beliefs.After his death Askia Mohammed set up a Muslim dynasty and set up a bureaucracy. He also completed the hajj which improved his ties with the Muslim world.
20Trade Routes of East Africa By 1000 A.D., port cities in Africa were thriving from trade across the Indian ocean. Some of the things that were produced in Africa that they traded were ivory, rhinoceros horn, hides, and gold. Some immediate affects from the trading were that there was thriving commerce in Mogadishu, Kilwa, and Sofala. There was also a rise of strong East African city-states and a rise of slave trade. There was also the introduction of crops and animals from the Middle East and Asia.
21The Stones of Great Zimbabwe To the south and inland from the coastal city-states, massive stone ruins sprawl across rocky hilltops near the great bend in the Limpopo River.These ruins are known as “Great Zimbabwe.” The builders of Great Zimbabwe were a group of Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region between 900 and 1500.The newcomers brought improved farming methods. They produced enough food to support a growing population.
22Economy and Government Scholars have suggested that the ruler of Great Zimbabwe was a god-king who presided over a large court. A central bureaucracy ruled an inner ring of province, while appointed governors had authority in more distant villages.Zimbabwe reached its height in about By then, it tapped nearby gold resources and created profitable commercial links with coastal cities like Sofala.
23African ArtsAfrican art was usually created in ivory, bronze, and wood. Jewelry and dyed cloth was used in African art often. Much art, though, served as social and religious purposes.
24Regents QuestionsThe wealth and power of Mali’s ruler, mansa musa, were significant because they contributed to theStart of the crusades c) Spread of IslamGrowth of European nationalism d) Rise of Arab nationalism2) The spread of Islam into the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali resulted fromImperialism c) cultural diffusionEthnocentrism d) self- determination3) Which civilization best completes the heading of the partial outlineBeninMaliKush4) Egyptian____________a)spread of Islamb)Gold and salt tradec) Growth of Timbuktud) Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa
25Regents Questions4) Which description best characterizes the city of TimbuktuPort of the water route to east AsiaMajor urban and industrial center on the Silk roadCommercial and cultural center of West AfricaInland city of the Hanseatic league5) Which economic activity was the basis for most of the wealth and power of the West African empires of Ghana and MaliHunting and gatheringFarming and cattle ranchingTrading in salt and goldWorking in bronze and brass
26Answers c. the spread of Islam c. cultural diffusion c. Mali c. commercial and cultural center of West Africac. trading in salt and gold