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1. Tropical rainforests 2. Savanna – grassy plains 3. Sahara desert 4. Mediterranean coast.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Tropical rainforests 2. Savanna – grassy plains 3. Sahara desert 4. Mediterranean coast."— Presentation transcript:

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3 1. Tropical rainforests 2. Savanna – grassy plains 3. Sahara desert 4. Mediterranean coast

4 Tropical rainforests – cover less than 5% of Africa Tropical rainforests – cover less than 5% of Africa Savanna – largest and most populated zone Savanna – largest and most populated zone

5 Sahara – the world’s largest desert Sahara – the world’s largest desert Desertification  Migration Desertification  Migration

6 Mediterranean coast – the tip of the Northern and Southern coasts of Africa Mediterranean coast – the tip of the Northern and Southern coasts of Africa Unlike the desert, the Mediterranean climate is ideal for farming. Unlike the desert, the Mediterranean climate is ideal for farming.

7 Bantu Migrations Bantu Migrations West African farmers and herders moved to the south and east between 500 and 1500 AD. West African farmers and herders moved to the south and east between 500 and 1500 AD. Migrations contributed to the rich diversity of people and cultures Migrations contributed to the rich diversity of people and cultures They spoke a variety of languages that all came from the African root language, Bantu. They spoke a variety of languages that all came from the African root language, Bantu.

8 Bantu Migrations Bantu Migrations

9 Nile Kingdom of Nubia The ancient kingdom Nubia was formed on a wide band of fertile land along the Nile. Nubian rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions. They built palaces and pyramids modeled on Egyptian styles. The ancient kingdom Nubia was formed on a wide band of fertile land along the Nile. Nubian rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions. They built palaces and pyramids modeled on Egyptian styles.

10 Roman Influence on North Africa The Romans built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across North Africa. The Romans built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities across North Africa. They imported lions and other fierce animals to do battle with the gladiators. They imported lions and other fierce animals to do battle with the gladiators.

11 GOLD SALT

12 The camel changed the Saharan trade. For centuries trade was limited because the horses that transported the salt were not suitable to desert travel. However, about 300, the Berbers, an Arabic people of North Africa began using camels to carry their goods. When the caravans reached Ghana, merchants would pay one pound of gold dust for one pound of salt. Trade began to thrive. The camel changed the Saharan trade. For centuries trade was limited because the horses that transported the salt were not suitable to desert travel. However, about 300, the Berbers, an Arabic people of North Africa began using camels to carry their goods. When the caravans reached Ghana, merchants would pay one pound of gold dust for one pound of salt. Trade began to thrive. Now, more than 1,000 years later, salt trade still exists. As late as 1975, workers in Taghaza were living in salt huts and mining several thousand tons of salt per year. Small caravans of camels carrying salt still arrive in Timbuktu today. Now, more than 1,000 years later, salt trade still exists. As late as 1975, workers in Taghaza were living in salt huts and mining several thousand tons of salt per year. Small caravans of camels carrying salt still arrive in Timbuktu today.

13 Kingdoms Of West Africa Ghana, Mali and Songhai were among the richest of the West African states. They dominated the Sahara trade. Two products that dominated the Sahara trade were gold and salt. These commodities, or valuable products, were plentiful. Sahara Trade Routes

14 In 800, the rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create Ghana. The capitol of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh which was comprised of two separate towns. In 800, the rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create Ghana. The capitol of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh which was comprised of two separate towns. The king controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa. Two streams of trade met in Ghana, where kings collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land. The king controlled the gold-salt trade routes across West Africa. Two streams of trade met in Ghana, where kings collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land. Muslim merchants brought their Islamic faith to Ghana. They also introduced their written language coinage, business methods, and architecture. Muslim merchants brought their Islamic faith to Ghana. They also introduced their written language coinage, business methods, and architecture.

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16 In 1235, Sundiata founded the kingdom of Mali. In 1235, Sundiata founded the kingdom of Mali. The greatest emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, expanded Mali’s borders and worked to keep peace. (mansa = king) The greatest emperor of Mali, Mansa Musa, expanded Mali’s borders and worked to keep peace. (mansa = king) Mansa Musa converted to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran. He actually fulfilled one of the five pillars of Islam by making the hajj. Mansa Musa converted to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran. He actually fulfilled one of the five pillars of Islam by making the hajj. He formed diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim states, increasing Mali’s renown. He formed diplomatic and economic ties with other Muslim states, increasing Mali’s renown.

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18 By 1450, Gao, a wealthy trading state became the capital of Songhai. By 1450, Gao, a wealthy trading state became the capital of Songhai. Sonni Ali, made it the largest state to have ever existed in West Africa. He did not adopt the practices of Islam. Instead, he followed more traditional religious beliefs. Sonni Ali, made it the largest state to have ever existed in West Africa. He did not adopt the practices of Islam. Instead, he followed more traditional religious beliefs. After his death Askia Mohammed set up a Muslim dynasty and set up a bureaucracy. He also completed the hajj which improved his ties with the Muslim world. After his death Askia Mohammed set up a Muslim dynasty and set up a bureaucracy. He also completed the hajj which improved his ties with the Muslim world.

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20 By 1000 A.D., port cities in Africa were thriving from trade across the Indian ocean. Some of the things that were produced in Africa that they traded were ivory, rhinoceros horn, hides, and gold. Some immediate affects from the trading were that there was thriving commerce in Mogadishu, Kilwa, and Sofala. There was also a rise of strong East African city-states and a rise of slave trade. There was also the introduction of crops and animals from the Middle East and Asia.

21 To the south and inland from the coastal city- states, massive stone ruins sprawl across rocky hilltops near the great bend in the Limpopo River. To the south and inland from the coastal city- states, massive stone ruins sprawl across rocky hilltops near the great bend in the Limpopo River. These ruins are known as “Great Zimbabwe.” The builders of Great Zimbabwe were a group of Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region between 900 and These ruins are known as “Great Zimbabwe.” The builders of Great Zimbabwe were a group of Bantu-speaking people who settled in the region between 900 and The newcomers brought improved farming methods. They produced enough food to support a growing population. The newcomers brought improved farming methods. They produced enough food to support a growing population.

22 Scholars have suggested that the ruler of Great Zimbabwe was a god-king who presided over a large court. A central bureaucracy ruled an inner ring of province, while appointed governors had authority in more distant villages. Scholars have suggested that the ruler of Great Zimbabwe was a god-king who presided over a large court. A central bureaucracy ruled an inner ring of province, while appointed governors had authority in more distant villages. Zimbabwe reached its height in about By then, it tapped nearby gold resources and created profitable commercial links with coastal cities like Sofala.

23 African art was usually created in ivory, bronze, and wood. Jewelry and dyed cloth was used in African art often. Much art, though, served as social and religious purposes. African art was usually created in ivory, bronze, and wood. Jewelry and dyed cloth was used in African art often. Much art, though, served as social and religious purposes.

24 Regents Questions 1)The wealth and power of Mali’s ruler, mansa musa, were significant because they contributed to the a)Start of the crusades c) Spread of Islam b)Growth of European nationalism d) Rise of Arab nationalism 2) The spread of Islam into the kingdoms of Ghana and Mali resulted from a)Imperialism c) cultural diffusion b)Ethnocentrism d) self- determination 3) Which civilization best completes the heading of the partial outline ____________ a)spread of Islam b)Gold and salt trade c) Growth of Timbuktu d) Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa 1)Benin 2)Mali 3)Kush 4) Egyptian

25 Regents Questions 4) Which description best characterizes the city of Timbuktu a)Port of the water route to east Asia b)Major urban and industrial center on the Silk road c)Commercial and cultural center of West Africa d)Inland city of the Hanseatic league 5) Which economic activity was the basis for most of the wealth and power of the West African empires of Ghana and Mali a)Hunting and gathering b)Farming and cattle ranching c)Trading in salt and gold d)Working in bronze and brass

26 Answers 1)c. the spread of Islam 2)c. cultural diffusion 3)c. Mali 4)c. commercial and cultural center of West Africa 5)c. trading in salt and gold


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